Development Of Pv Vaccines
In 1935, Brodie tried an inactivated vaccine with 10% formalin suspension of PV taken from infected monkey spinal cord he tried it first on 20 monkeys, then on 3000 Californian children. The results were poor and additional human studies were never performed. In the same year, Kollmer tried a live attenuated virus consisting of a 4% suspension of PV from infected monkey spinal cord, treated with sodium ricinoleate. He used it on monkeys and then on several thousand children. The acute paralysis occurred in about 1/1000 vaccines shortly after administration and some cases were fatal.
The discovery that the various antigenic strains of PVs could be grouped into three distinct viral types and the propagation of the PV in vitro led to the development of the vaccines against poliomyelitis: the formalin-inactivated vaccine by Jonas Salk and the live-attenuated vaccines by Albert Sabin .
Vaccine Development In The 1980s Hepatitis B And Haemophilus Influenzae Type B
The vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b was licensed in 1985 and placed on the recommended schedule in 1989. When the schedule was published again in 1994, the hepatitis B vaccine had been added.
The hepatitis B vaccine was not new, as it had been licensed in 1981 and recommended for high-risk groups such as infants whose mothers were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, healthcare workers, intravenous drug users, homosexual men and people with multiple sexual partners. However, immunization of these groups didn’t effectively stop transmission of hepatitis B virus. Thats because about one-third of patients with acute disease were not in identifiable risk groups. The change of recommendation to immunize all infants in 1991 was the result of these failed attempts to control hepatitis B by only immunizing high-risk groups. Following this recommendation, hepatitis B disease was virtually eliminated in children less than 18 years of age in the United States.
1985 – 1994 | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTP** Given in combination as MMR
Dr Jonas Salk Announces Polio Vaccine
On March 26, 1953, American medical researcher Dr. Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the crippling disease of polio. In 1952an epidemic year for poliothere were 58,000 new cases reported in the United States, and more than 3,000 died from the disease. For his work in helping to eradicate the disease, which is known as infant paralysis because it mainly affects children, Dr. Salk was celebrated as the great doctor-benefactor of his time.
READ MORE: 8 Things You May Not Know About Jonas Salk and the Polio Vaccine
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Salk, born in New York City in 1914, first conducted research on viruses in the 1930s when he was a medical student at New York University, and during World War II helped develop flu vaccines. In 1947, he became head of a research laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh and in 1948 was awarded a grant to study the polio virus and develop a possible vaccine. By 1950, he had an early version of his polio vaccine.
READ MORE: How a New Polio Vaccine Faced Shortages and Setbacks
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Polio Vaccine Trial Announcement
“Safe, effective, and potent.”
With these words on April 12, 1955, Dr. Thomas Francis Jr., director of the Poliomyelitis Vaccine Evaluation Center at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, announced to the world that the Salk polio vaccine was up to 90% effective in preventing paralytic polio.
Dr. Francis made the announcement to a crowd of scientists and reporters at the University of Michigan’s Rackham Auditorium, concluding his two-year national field trials of the poliomyelitis vaccine developed by his former student, Jonas Salk. Francis was chair of the School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology where Salk did postgraduate training.
Over 1,800,000 children participated in the field trials, which were unprecedented in magnitude.
Annual Updates To The Immunization Schedule 1995 To 2010
As more vaccines became available, an annual update to the schedule was important because of changes that providers needed to know, such as detailed information about who should receive each vaccine, age of receipt, number of doses, time between doses, or use of combination vaccines. New vaccines were also added.
Important changes to the schedule between 1995 and 2010 included:
- New vaccines: Varicella , rotavirus hepatitis A pneumococcal vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: influenza hepatitis A
- New versions of existing vaccines: acellular pertussis vaccine intranasal influenza
- Discontinuation of vaccine: Oral polio vaccine
2000 | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR
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Immediate Action Required: Call 999 Or Go To A& e If You Or Your Child:
- are not able to move part, or all, of your body â the body part may also feel stiff, floppy or numb
- are having difficulty breathing or are breathless
- help with breathing
- regular stretches and exercises to prevent problems with your muscles and joints
You may need to have specialist help such as physiotherapy or surgery if you have any long-term problems caused by polio.
Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects
If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
Immunisation side effects may be reported to AEFI-CAN the national Adverse Events Following Immunisation Clinical Assessment Network. This vaccine safety and central reporting service is known as SAEFVIC in Victoria.
It is also important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness rather than because of the vaccination.
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Vaccine Production In Australia
Dr Percival Bazeley of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories was sent to work with Salk in 1952 and returned to Melbourne in 1955 to begin manufacturing the dead-virus vaccine. The first Salk vaccines were distributed across Australia in June 1956 and 25 million doses of the vaccine were produced by CSL under Dr Bazeleys directorship.
Many parents were enthusiastic about the vaccine but by no means all. By 1964, 83 per cent of New South Wales children were vaccinated, but only 72 per cent of children in Victoria.
These vaccination rates were not high enough. The eradication of a disease relies on herd immunity, which occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population provides protection for individuals who have not developed immunity. The lack of herd immunity contributed to another outbreak of polio in Australia in 1961 and 1962.
Sabins oral vaccine was first used in Australia in 1966.
In October 2000 the World Health Organization declared the Western Pacific region, which includes Australia, to be polio-free.
There are an estimated 400,000 polio survivors in Australia, many of whom still live with the long-term effects of the disease.
What Is Polio And How Does It Spread
“Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a disabling and life-threatening disease caused by the poliovirus,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains. It mostly affects children.
Most people infected with the highly transmissible disease exhibit mild cold or flu-like symptoms, if they have any symptoms at all, but the virus can infect a patient’s spinal cord, causing meningitis, paralysis, and sometimes death. “Even children who seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or paralysis as adults, 15 to 40 years later,” the CDC says.
The poliovirus is spread person-to-person, in rare cases through droplets from a sneeze or cough but mostly through ingesting contaminated fecal matter. “The virus multiplies in the intestine for weeks and could spread through feces or contaminated food or water for example, when an infected child uses the toilet, neglects washing hands, and then touches food,” The New York Times explains.
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Koprowski Polio Vaccine Tests
So when was the polio vaccine invented?
In the late 1940s, Dr. Hilary Koprowski of Lederle Laboratories in Philadelphia successfully administered a vaccine for type 2 poliovirus. He chose to test it on himself and his assistant after trying it on chimpanzees. They both drank the vaccine and observed no adverse effects.
Big Pharma And Corporate Media Finally Admit The Oral Polio Vaccine Is A Failure Causes Polio Instead Of Preventing It
Just as there has been throughout the COVID-19 scam, honest doctors came forward over the years to expose the corruption in the polio vaccination campaigns, stating clearly that the polio vaccines were the problem, not the solution, but they were censored and even silenced.
Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez, M.D., was one of those critics, and we republished an article he wrote back in 2015:
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A Girls Impossible Dream In A World Of Men
Horstmann had a powerful fantasy as a child: she imagined herself as a doctor. Born in Spokane, Wash., in 1911, she grew up in San Francisco, where as a teenager she accompanied a physician friend of the family as he made his rounds through the local hospital. Earning her undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of California, San Francisco, Horstmann recalled that it had never crossed my mind that was in any way unusual for a woman. It was quite natural.
In 1941, Horstmann applied for a residency at Vanderbilt University Hospital in Nashville, where the chief of medicine, Hugh Morgan, M.D., had a strict policy of choosing only men. I got back a polite letter, saying no, she recalled in an unpublished interview with historian Daniel J. Wilson, Ph.D., of Muhlenberg College in Pennsylvania. I wasnt exactly crushed, but I was disappointed. Six months later, while considering an offer to enter private practice in San Francisco, she received a note from Morgan asking if Dr. Horstmann was still interested. She was, indeed. Somehow, Morgan had forgotten that Dr. Horstmann was a woman. Horstmann later learned from his secretary that when Morgan discovered his error, he all but went into shock. But we became friends, and I had a very good year there.
Polio Vaccine Trials Begin
On April 26, 1954, the Salk polio vaccine field trials, involving 1.8 million children, begin at the Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia. Children in the United States, Canada and Finland participated in the trials, which used for the first time the now-standard double-blind method, whereby neither the patient nor attending doctor knew if the inoculation was the vaccine or a placebo.
One year later, on April 12, 1955, researchers announced the vaccine was safe and effective and it quickly became a standard part of childhood immunizations in America. In the ensuing decades, polio vaccines would all but wipe out the highly contagious disease in the Western Hemisphere.
READ MORE: How a New Polio Vaccine Faced Shortages and Setbacks
Polio, known officially as poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease that has existed since ancient times and is caused by a virus. It occurs most commonly in children and can result in paralysis. The disease reached epidemic proportions throughout the first half of the 20th century. During the 1940s and 1950s, polio was associated with the iron lung, a large metal tank designed to help polio victims suffering from respiratory paralysis breathe.
READ MORE: 8 Things You May Not Know About Jonas Salk and the Polio Vaccine
Today, polio has been eliminated throughout much of the world due to the vaccine however, there is still no cure for the disease and it persists in a small number of countries in Africa and Asia.
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Cultivating Poliovirus In Human Tissue
Scientists in New York City grew the poliovirus in embryonic brain tissue, allowing them to study how the virus spread. However, they were reluctant to create a vaccine in this manner due to the risks associated with using nervous system tissues. This particular study did at least advance the medical communitys understanding of the poliovirus ability to multiply.
Did I Get The Polio Vaccine How To Know If You Are Protected Against The Virus
A case of polio was identified in Rockland County, New York and now the virus that causes the disease has been detected in New York City’s wastewater as well as two other counties’. The New York Health Department said this indicates the virus is being spread within local communities, and that hundreds of people could be infected.
Polio is “a serious and life-threatening disease,” the state health department said. It’s highly contagious, and people can spread the virus before they start showing symptoms which can take as long as 30 days after becoming infected.
Until the recent uptick, the polio vaccine had virtually wiped out the disease for generations of Americans.
How do you know if you’ve been vaccinated against polio?
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How Is Polio Treated
Treatment aims to help people with polio recover and to prevent complications. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment may include:
- medicines for pain relief or to reduce muscle spasm
- intensive care in hospital, including help with breathing
- physiotherapy to aid recovery from paralysis
Vaccines Can Cause Polio
The short answer is no, and certainly not the kind of vaccine exclusively used in the U.S. for the past two decades.
There are two types of polio vaccines: the inactivated poliovirus vaccine , which is injected in the arm or leg and uses a killed poliovirus to teach the body to recognize and attack the virus and the oral poliovirus vaccine , which uses a weakened virus and is administered via oral drops. Both types of vaccine are overwhelmingly safe and effective at preventing severe polio. Each has its benefits and disadvantages.
“The oral vaccine is inexpensive, easy to administer, and can prevent infected people from spreading the virus to others, a method better suited to extinguishing outbreaks,” the Times reports. “But it has one paradoxical flaw: Vaccinated children can shed the weakened virus in feces, and from there it can sometimes find its way back into people, occasionally setting off a chain of infections in communities with low immunization rates.” Those rare infections are cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus .
The U.S. used oral vaccines for decades, but switched exclusively to the IPV in 2000 to avoid VDPV cases. “But that doesn’t prevent vaccine-derived strains from being imported by travelers from overseas, or by a U.S. resident who traveled internationally, picked up the virus from someone who had received the OPV, and brought it back home,” Time notes.
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Vaccines For Adolescents: A New Generation Of Vaccines
Adolescents, like adults, were recommended to get tetanus boosters every 10 years most requiring their first booster dose around age 11. Other than this, however, most adolescents did not require additional vaccines unless they missed one in childhood. By 2005, vaccines specifically recommended for adolescents were only recommended for sub-groups based on where they lived or medical conditions that they had. However, a new group of vaccines became available in the latter part of the decade.
- New vaccines: Tdap, 2005, meningococcal conjugate , HPV , meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
- Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
- New versions of existing vaccines: HPV
- Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine
The Unfortunate Return Of Polio Explained
Polio is back.
The highly infectious, potentially lethal virus has been nearly eradicated through a global health campaign launched in 1988. But unlike horseshoes and hand grenades, close doesn’t cut it for communicable diseases. Poliovirus was discovered over the summer in samples of wastewater in New York City and two northern suburbs, and one unvaccinated young adult in Rockland County developed paralysis in their legs due to the virus the first known case of polio in the U.S. since 2013.
“The fact that we’re finding it in wastewater tells you it’s more common than people appreciate,” Columbia University epidemiology professor Ian Lipkin tells Time. “We’re looking at the tip of the iceberg.” If we checked, “every major city in the U.S.” would probably have polio in its sewage, adds Columbia virologist Vincent Racaniello. Here’s what you need to know about the unwelcome return of an old public enemy.
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How Is Polio Diagnosed
If you have symptoms of polio, see a doctor immediately.
If your doctor suspects polio based on your symptoms, you will be asked if you have travelled to a country where people still have polio or contacted someone who has.
Your doctor will confirm a polio diagnosis by taking a sample from the throat, stool or cerebrospinal fluid .
Was I Vaccinated Against Polio Young Adults Wonder
Did you text Mom recently asking if you had been vaccinated against polio? So did we.
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By Remy Tumin
Michelle Tynan, 32, texted her mother a question last week that had never crossed her mind before: Had she received the polio vaccine?
Yes you did! her mother wrote back, sending a picture of her polio vaccination records and another, less pressing reminder: Also, you got mail.
After health officials reported a case of polio in a New York suburb in July the first detected in the United States in nearly a decade and traces of the poliovirus circulating in New York City wastewater, some Americans felt the urge to take stock of their immunization history. If you, like Ms. Tynan or this reporter for that matter found yourself reaching out to parents and guardians inquiring about polio for the first time, you were not alone.
The conversation was one played out across the United States.
In Chicago, Tyler Edwards, 33, texted his mother a few times recently about his vaccine status. First it was to see if Mr. Edwards, who is gay, had received the smallpox vaccine, which has shown to provide some protection against monkeypox. He reached out again after the possible polio outbreaks, and she confirmed he had received that vaccine and sent him his old vaccine card as proof.
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