Monday, March 27, 2023

What’s The Difference Between A Vaccine And A Cure

How Is It Different From A Vaccine

Boston doctor explains difference between third COVID-19 vaccine dose and booster shot

A vaccine helps stimulate and prepare your immune system to respond if or when you are exposed to the virus, Petty says. âYour immune system is ready to create all these antibodies before they are needed.â

Monoclonal antibodies boost the immune system after you are already sick, speeding up your immune response to prevent COVID-19 from getting worse. âBut a vaccine does this much easier and much better,â Petty says.

You can think of monoclonal antibodies as guided missiles that target and neutralize the virus, Fales says. But they don’t stick around. While monoclonal antibodies are effective for about a month, they are long gone 6 months later, when a vaccine still offers significant protection.

How Effective Are The Five Covid Vaccines

Oxford-AstraZeneca: The AstraZeneca vaccine has proven to be 90 per cent effective if administered in a half dose followed by a full dose, or 62 per cent effective if given in two full doses. However, a new study at the University of Oxford has found the efficacy from two standard doses of the vaccine administered three months apart to be 82.4 per cent.

Pfizer-BioNTech: Pfizer’s vaccine is 52 per cent effective after the first dose, but 95 per cent after the second dose. However, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation suggests the first dose can be up to between 89 and 92 per cent effective.

Moderna: Clinical trials for the Moderna vaccine show it is 94.1 per cent effective and even 100 per cent in preventing severe coronavirus symptoms, as well as working across all age groups.

The is said to have been 89.3 per cent effective in trials. It is also believed to give protection against the UK variant, but less so against the South African strain.

The Janssen vaccine has proven to be 66 per cent effective in trials, according to the Belgian company. It had 72 per cent efficacy in the US and 57 per cent in South Africa, where it was up against the new variant.

Reporting A Possible Side Effect Or Serious Reaction

Contact your health care provider if you experience:

  • a side effect following vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine
  • any persistent, new or worsening symptoms

Health care providers must report possible reactions following vaccination to their local public health authority. The public health authority then reports them to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Reported allergic reactions and side effects to COVID-19 vaccines are published weekly in our Reported side effects following COVID-19 vaccination report.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Vitiligo

The main symptom of vitiligo is smooth, white patches of skin. Although the patches can develop anywhere on the body, the hands, feet, and face are often the most affected areas. In some cases, the scalp and hair can also lose their pigment and become white.

Although the white patches dont typically come with other symptoms, the American Academy of Dermatology states that few people feel pain or itchiness in the affected areas.

What Is A Vaccine

That wasn

In case you havent guessed it already, vaccines and cures are, in fact, two very different things. Unlike most medicines, which are often used to treat a disease or infection, vaccines are developed to prevent them, explains Dr. Mona Kennedy, a doctor at Forwards San Francisco location. A vaccine is a weakened, or non-viable version of the infection that stimulates your immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like your body would begin to do if you were actually exposed to the full-strength infection in the wild. The hope is, these antibodies provide immunity to that infection and prevent you from contracting it.

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The Advantages Of Cellular Immunity

However, this approach has taken us about as far as we can go. For one thing, the pathogens that cause diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, HIV, and many parasitic infections have all developed complex strategies to control our immune system, and evade detection even hiding in our own immune cells in the case of HIV. They control and work with our immune system, and against us, says Openshaw.

But antibodies alone dont seem to be enough. We also need T cell directed cellular immunity in which our immune system is able to destroy cells that have already been infected by the pathogen. However current vaccines arent very good at generating this type of immunity. Unfortunately, we have not learned yet how to make vaccines that operate at the cellmediated level in a highly effective manner, says Germain.

One strategy currently being investigated is DNA vaccines. Here, small pieces of DNA encoding antigens from the virus are inserted into a bacterial plasmid, which is then injected in the hope that some of our cells will take up the DNA and essentially become vaccine-antigen factories themselves manufacturing and secreting the bit of the pathogen which the immune system can react to.

How Does A Vaccine Work

A vaccine, however, is what we call active immunity. A vaccine can be a piece of a virus, an inactivated virus, or a live virus that no longer has the ability to cause disease. When we inject this into a human being, the immune system launches an attack as if the person were actually experiencing a genuine SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, though, the person will not get sick, and that attack will give the inoculated person what we call immune memory. Immune memory protects them from future infection because the body has already learned how to respond to the virus, allowing your body to clear SARS-CoV-2 before it can do any damage. In many cases, this protective immunity can last years to an entire lifetime. Vaccines are perfectly safe and can prevent healthy people from getting COVID-19 in the future. However, we cannot use this to treat a patient who is already sick.

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A Hit And Miss Approach

The same principle underpins the development of pretty much every childhood vaccination we receive today. You get a bug, you kill or inactivate it and then you inject the product into people and if youre lucky it protects them against infection, says Peter Openshaw, President of the British Society for Immunology and Professor of Experimental Medicine at Imperial College London.

Incredibly, the transformative effects of vaccines on human and animal health occurred with barely any understanding of the immune events taking place in the body. It was a hit and miss approach, but because there were so many attempts, it resulted in a large number of the vaccines which were partly responsible for the large decline in mortality from infectious disease during the second half of the twentieth century, Openshaw adds.

Although the development of most existing vaccines relied on trial and error rather than sophisticated immunology, we now know that the formation of this immunological memory involves distinct subsets of immune cells called B cells and T cells. Upon encountering the vaccine components , cells such as macrophages which specialise in processing and disposing of pathogens engulf the antigens and present them to B and T lymphocytes. The B cells churn out antibodies that protect against infection, while memory cells are also produced that will initiate a rapid response the next time that pathogen is encountered.

Okay So They’re Definitely Different Why Does That Matter

Doctor Breaks Down Differences Between Coronavirus & Flu

In both cases, Mirzaian preaches the importance of something we’ve all been hearing since kindergarten: wash your hands. Like, a lot. “Most people know to wash their hands after using the restroom or before they eat, but viruses can live on surfaces, so it’s smart to wash your hands periodically throughout the day, too,” she says. Doing so will lower your odds of contracting both.

But there’s one major difference between protecting yourself from a cold and protecting yourself from the flu.”There isn’t a cure for the common cold, or a vaccine, but there is a vaccine for the flu,” Mirzaian says. This touches on another misconception Mirzaian finds herself correcting year after yearthe idea that getting a flu vaccine will give you the flu and not protect you from it. “This is the opposite of what’s true,” she says. “If you don’t want to get the flu, get a flu shot.”

Even if you’re a healthy person, Mirzaian says it’s still important to protect yourself in this way to avoid spreading the virus to babies or the elderly. Both populations are vulnerable to the flu and have a risk of dying from it. “I don’t want to take away from the seriousness of the coronavirus by any means, but people should also know that the flu has caused more deaths every year,” she says.

Check out the video below for more on how to boost your immunity using food:

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Vaccine Efficacy Effectiveness And Protection

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines from how they work and how theyre made to ensuring safety and equitable access in WHOs Vaccines Explained series.

COVID-19 vaccines have proven to be safe, effective and life-saving. Like all vaccines, they do not fully protect everyone who is vaccinated, and we do not yet know how well they can prevent people from transmitting the virus to others. So as well as getting vaccinated, we must also continue with other measures to fight the pandemic.

Vaccination: Prevention Is Better Than Cure

A hundred years ago, the death of a child from infectious disease was a common occurrence. Louis Pasteur, who took Edward Jenners ideas about vaccination and suggested they could be applied to any microbial disease, lost three of his five children to typhoid an illness thats now almost entirely preventable thanks to the technology he helped develop. Together with improved sanitation and antibiotics, vaccination has utterly transformed our relationship with pathogens. Smallpox has been eliminated, polio is on its way out, while other historic harbingers of death and debility such as measles and diphtheria are extremely rare. According to the World Health Organization, vaccines prevent around 3 million premature deaths per year.

Vaccination is one of the most demonstrably effective and cost effective public health interventions that there is, says Andrew Pollard, Professor of Paediatric Infection and Immunity at the University of Oxford and Director of the Oxford Vaccines Group.

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So What Does All This Mean

The largest difference between a live and dead vaccine is that a live vaccine elicits a stronger response in your immune system than a dead one. As mentioned above, that means that a live vaccination can last a lifetime. A dead vaccination requires regular booster shots throughout your life.

When being immunized, some worry that the vaccines virus can get you sick. There is a small and rare chance that the live bacteria in the weakened vaccine can revert back to its original form and actually cause the disease.

This is an increased risk for individuals with a compromised immune system including individuals with AIDS, patients undergoing chemotherapy, or patients who have had an organ transplant. These individuals should always talk to a doctor before receiving any form of live vaccine.

Again, these instances are rare when it comes to live vaccinations, but you should always be aware.

Dead vaccines are completely safe and pose no risk of causing the actual disease.

Do you have any questions about these vaccines, or any others? Passport Health can help. Call us at to schedule an appointment or book it online today.

Did you know there was such a difference between weakened and dead vaccines? Let us know in the comments, or via and .

Written for Passport Health by Kaitlyn Luckow. Kaitlyn is a freelance writer, photographer and English teacher in Milwaukee. She has a passion for capturing and writing other peoples stories. You can find her at

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Getting An Additional Dose Of The Vaccine

Whats the difference between #hepatitis a, b &  c? how does ...

After getting the initial series, getting another dose of vaccine might help people with a weakened immune system to build up a stronger immune response against the virus that causes COVID-19 .

Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines

The CDC recommends a third dose of the mRNA vaccines for people with moderately to severely weakened immune systems. This includes, for example, people who have:

  • Been getting active cancer treatment
  • Received a stem cell transplant or CAR T-cell therapy within the last 2 years or are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
  • Been getting active treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or other drugs that may suppress the immune response

The third dose of vaccine should be given at least 4 weeks after the second dose. Whenever possible, the same mRNA vaccine should be used for the third dose, according to the CDC. If the same vaccine isnt available , then either mRNA vaccine may be given for the third dose.

People who receive this third dose are also eligible for a booster dose of vaccine, according to the CDC. This should be given at least 6 months after the third dose.

Johnson & Johnson vaccine

While the CDC does not recommend an additional dose at this time for immunocompromised people who initially received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, they do recommend getting a booster shot at least 2 months after the initial dose. Any of the three available vaccines can be given for this booster dose.

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How Is Albinism Diagnosed

Typically, diagnosing albinism involves a physical exam to check for signs of the condition on the skin, hair, and eyes. To confirm a diagnosis, a doctor may perform a genetic test to determine what specific gene mutated and led to the development of the condition. The DNA genetic test is a way to correctly diagnosis which type of albinism a person has.

Should People With Cancer Get A Specific Covid

As mentioned in Which COVID-19 vaccines are available?, the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is an adenovirus vaccine. The other main difference between them is that the initial series for the mRNA vaccines is given as two shots over 3 to 4 weeks, while the adenovirus vaccine is initially given as a single shot.

All three of the vaccines have been shown to be effective at lowering the risk of getting COVID-19, as well as the risk of severe illness, being hospitalized, or dying from the disease if you are infected.

At this time, the CDC prefers that people get one of the mRNA vaccines over the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The mRNA vaccines are more readily available and dont appear to have the rare side effect of blood clots . For people who cant or dont want to get an mRNA vaccine, the CDC stresses that getting any COVID-19 vaccine, including the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, is better than being unvaccinated.

As new information about the different COVID-19 vaccines becomes available, its possible that the guidance about the different vaccines might change. For this reason, its important to talk with your cancer doctor about getting the vaccine.

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How Do I Get Monoclonal Antibodies

Since monoclonal antibodies are primarily given in infusion centers, not doctorsâ offices, getting access isnât always straightforward. And many doctors still arenât very experienced with the treatment, Petty says.

Still, if you or a loved one has tested positive or been exposed and you think you might qualify for treatment, the first step is to contact your doctor. If they are familiar with monoclonal antibodies, they can help you get the treatment and bypass a lot of the work for you, Petty says.

If your doctor isnât familiar with monoclonal antibodies, you should still talk to them about your interest in treatment. You can use websites from the Department of Health and Human Services and Infusion Centers of America to find a nearby treatment site.

Many of these sites require a referral from a doctor, Fales says. If you donât have a referral, they often can help you get one if you call ahead, whether through your doctor, a doctor at the infusion center, a telehealth consultation, or a local urgent care clinic.

What Are The Side Effects Of The Vaccines

A Look At The Differences Between Flu And COVID-19 Symptoms

Common side effects that have been reported after getting the vaccines include:

  • Pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site
  • Feeling tired
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Nausea

For the vaccines that require two shots as part of the initial series, the side effects might be a little stronger after the second shot compared to what you might have had after the first injection. In general, the side effects tend to go away within a few days.

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What Diseases May Therapeutic Vaccines Treat

The number of diseases researchers hope to treat with therapeutic vaccines is enormous.

“Someday, we might make vaccines for Alzheimer’s, neurological diseases, arteriosclerosis, and maybe even obesity,” says Ertl. Other targets for therapeutic vaccines include viruses like herpes and hepatitis and even nicotine addiction.

The list of diseases is impressive, but Ertl and other experts say that most of these vaccines are in very early stages of development. Here are a few examples of therapeutic vaccines being studied.

Whats The Difference Between Weakened And Dead Vaccines

December 15, 2018 By Caitlin Hartwyk

If youve ever done any research into vaccinations, you may have come across the different kind of viruses in those vaccines.

Some vaccines contain a dead or inactive version of the virus theyre protecting against. Other use a weakened or live version of the virus.

But, whats the difference between weakened and dead vaccines?

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