What Causes Meningitis And Septicaemia
Meningococcal bacteria are significant causes of meningitis and septicaemia. There are 5 main groups of meningococcal bacteria that can cause meningitis and septicaemia A, B, C, W and Y.
Meningococcal bacteria live in the throats of about 25% of young people without causing any problems at all. The bacteria can spread to other people through coughing, sneezing or kissing. The MenACWY programme’s targeting young people because of the higher risk of the bacteria spreading among young people of the same age.
Why You Should Vaccinate
Infectious diseases can spread among children and adolescents at school who are not vaccinated. As a parent, you can keep your kids healthy with routine health care and vaccines. Make sure your school-age children are up-to-date with their vaccinations.
Infection from certain diseases can kill or seriously harm your child. Vaccines use weakened or killed virus or bacteria to trigger your childs natural immune response to provide long-term protection against a disease . It is like a rehearsal for the immune system, so your child is prepared if they are exposed to the “real” disease.
Vaccinations are safe
Vaccinations do not cause autism.
Scientific studies and reviews continue to show no relationship between vaccines and autism.
Some people wont develop immunity to a disease after being vaccinated, but the vaccine itself cannot infect someone. If a vaccinated individual does contract a disease which they were vaccinated against, their illness will be less severe.
Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines
Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.
Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.
If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.
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What Are The Common Side Effects
The most common side effects of the meningitis ACWY vaccine for young people are:
- hardening and itching at the injection site
If you feel unwell at any time after getting immunised, you should contact your GP. If you’re worried, trust your instincts. Speak to your GP or phone the 111 service.
Phone your GP immediately if, at any time, you have a temperature of 39°C or above, or have a fit. If your GP practice is closed, phone the 111 service immediately.
Preteens And Teens Are At Increased Risk For Meningococcal Disease An Uncommon But Serious Illness
Meningococcal disease can be devastating and oftenand unexpectedlystrikes otherwise healthy people. Although meningococcal disease is uncommon, teens and young adults 16 through 23 years old are at increased risk. Meningococcal bacteria can cause severe, even deadly, infections like
- Bacteremia or septicemia
About 1 in 5 people who survive their meningococcal infection have permanent disabilities.
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How Common Is Menb Disease
MenB is now the cause of most cases of meningococcal disease in Scotland. There were 73 cases in Scotland in 2014. For 61 of these, it was possible to tell which type of infection caused them. Of the 61 cases, 42 were caused by type B .
Although this infection isn’t common, its very important to remember that MenB is extremely serious and can lead to permanent disability and death. The meningococcal bacteria can also cause local outbreaks in nurseries, schools and universities.
Are You Still At Risk Of Meningitis After The Immunisation
Yes. However, the MenC vaccine has greatly reduced the number of cases of meningitis and blood infection since it was introduced in 1999 and the MenB vaccine is expected to be as effective.
Note: other groups of meningococcus, and other germs can still cause meningitis.
You should get medical help immediately if you suspect that your child, or someone you know, has meningitis or septicaemia. The earlier the treatment of meningitis or septicaemia, the better the chance of recovery and preventing complications or death. See the separate leaflet called Meningitis. See also the separate leaflets called and Meningitis Symptoms Checklist for more details about the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia.
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Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine Side Effects
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.
Side effects from this vaccine are uncommon and are usually mild, but may include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
- low-grade temperature
- children being unsettled, irritable, tearful, or generally unhappy, drowsy and tired.
Most Health Insurance Plans Pay For Menb Vaccination For Teens And Young Adults
Most health plans must cover CDC-recommended vaccines with no out-of-pocket costs if an in-network healthcare provider administers the vaccine. Patients should check with their insurance provider for details on whether there is any cost to them for this vaccine.
The Vaccines for Children, or VFC, program provides vaccines for children 18 and younger who are
- Not insured
- American Indian or Alaska Native
Parents can find a VFC provider by contacting their local health department. VFC will cover the cost of MenB vaccination for those
- 16 through 18 years old
- 10 through 18 years old at increased risk due to a medical condition
- 10 through 18 years old identified as being at increased risk due to a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak
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What Are The Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Mild side effects happen in about half those who get the vaccine. They may include redness or pain where the skin was injected. These side effects last no longer than 1 or 2 days.
Serious side effects are rare and can include high fever, weakness, and changes in behavior.
Severe allergic reactions may happen within minutes or hours of having the vaccination. These are signs of an allergic reaction:
Who Should Receive A Meningitis Vaccine
Meningitis vaccination is recommended for individuals over 11-years-old. This includes both the A, C, W and Y immunization and the B vaccination.
Travellers or others who could be exposed to meningitis should also be vaccinated this includes:
- Travellers to the meningitis belt in Africa
- Travellers going to Hajj in Saudi Arabia
- Individuals who work in confined conditions
- Healthcare workers
- College or other students
If you have not been vaccinated, or are unsure of your vaccination history, Passport Health can help. We keep meningitis vaccinations in-stock and ready for your trip or need. Call to schedule your appointment or book online now.
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What Is Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus . Meningococcal disease is not very common in the United States, but teens and young adults are at increased risk.
The two most common types of infections are
Global Public Health Response Elimination Of Meningococcal A Meningitis Epidemics In The African Meningitis Belt
In the African meningitis belt, meningococcus serogroup A accounted for 8085% of meningitis epidemics before the introduction of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine through mass preventive campaigns and into routine immunization programmes . As of April 2021, 24 of the 26 countries in the meningitis belt have conducted mass preventive campaigns targeting 1-29 year olds , and half of them have introduced this vaccine into their national routine immunization schedules. Among vaccinated populations, incidence of serogroup A meningitis has declined by more than 99% – no serogroup A case has been confirmed since 2017. Continuing introduction into routine immunization programmes and maintaining high coverage is critical to avoid the resurgence of epidemics.
Cases of meningitis and outbreaks due to other meningococcal serogroups, apart from serogroup B, continue to strike. The roll out of multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines is a public health priority to eliminate bacterial meningitis epidemics in the African Meningitis Belt.
The pneumococcus has over 97 serotypes, 23 causing most disease.
Haemophilus influenzae has 6 serotypes, serotype b causing most meningitis.
- Conjugate vaccines protect specifically against Haemophilus influenzae serotype b . They are highly effective in preventing Hib disease and are recommended for routine use in infant vaccine schedules.
Group B streptococcus
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When Are Meningococcal Vaccines Given
Vaccination with MenACWY is recommended:
- when kids are 11 or 12 years old, with a booster given at age 16
- for teens 1318 years old who haven’t been vaccinated yet
Those who have their first dose between the ages of 1315 should get a booster dose between the ages of 1618. Teens who get their first dose after age 16 won’t need a booster dose.
Kids and teens who are at higher risk for meningococcal disease need the full series of MenACWY vaccines, even if they’re younger than 11 years old. This includes kids who:
- live in or travel to countries where the disease is common
- are present during an outbreak of the disease
- have some kinds of immune disorders. If the immune disorders are chronic, these kids also need a booster dose a few years later, depending on their age at the first dose.
The sequence and dosage depends on the child’s age, medical condition, and vaccine brand. Some types of meningococcal vaccines can be given as early as 8 weeks of age.
Kids 10 years and older with these risk factors also should get the MenB vaccine. They’ll need 2 or 3 doses depending on the brand. They might need more booster doses as long as the risk factor remains.
For those without risk factors, the decision to receive the MenB vaccine should be made together by teens, their parents, and the doctor. For them, the preferred age range is 1618 years. Usually, they need 2 doses.
Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines, with the exception of a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine . There should be at least an 8 week interval between a dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a subsequent dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, and at least a 1 year interval between a dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine and a subsequent dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine refer to Immunocompromised persons for information regarding administration of pneumococcal vaccines to HSCT recipients. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections. Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
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Who Needs A Meningococcal Vaccine
The CDC recommends a meningococcal vaccine for:
- All children ages 11-18 or certain younger high-risk children
- Anyone who has been exposed to meningitis during an outbreak
- Anyone traveling to or living where meningitis is common, such as in sub-Saharan Africa
- Military recruits
- People with certain immune system disorders or a damaged or missing spleen
What Is The Meningitis Vaccine
Do you need a meningitis vaccine?
Schedule an appointment with your local Passport Health Travel Medicine Specialist
There are two types of meningitis vaccinations available in Canada. One protects against A, C, W and Y strains, the other against B strains.
Meningitis B vaccination is recommended for youth age 16 to 23. It provides short term protection against infection. It is also recommended as a routine vaccination for some individuals over the age of 10 if: there has been an outbreak of meningitis B, they have a damaged or removed spleen, certain immune conditions among other similar indications.
Immunization against meningitis A, C, W and Y is recommended or required for most preteens.
Both of these vaccinations are relatively new. Many individuals over the age of 30 may not have been vaccinated.
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Young People Starting University Aged 25 Or Under
Various sub groups of meningococcal disease can spread quickly in areas where people live closely to each other:
- in university halls of residence
- in shared accommodation
If youre aged 25 or under, about to start university for the first time and havent yet had the MenACWY vaccination, you should ask your GP for the vaccine. Even if you have previously received the Men C vaccine you should still now ask for the MenACWY vaccine.
Ideally, you should get the vaccine at least two weeks before you start university. If you dont get the vaccine before going to university you should contact a GP in the university health centre and arrange to get the vaccine.
You can ask your GP, practice nurse or university health centre for more information about the vaccine.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
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Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
You shouldn’t get either type of meningococcal vaccine if you:
- Are moderately or seriously ill wait until you recover.
- Have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose
- Had a severe reaction to any part of the vaccine
If you are pregnant or have other concerns, ask your doctor which meningitis vaccine is right for you.
When’s My Baby Going To Be Immunised
Your baby will be offered the MenB vaccine at 8 weeks, 16 weeks and a booster dose at 12 to 13 months. Your local NHS Health Board will contact you to let you know about their arrangements for your baby’s routine childhood immunisations.
Most practices and health centres run special immunisation baby clinics. If you cant get to the clinic, contact the practice or health centre to make another appointment.
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Meningococcal Vaccine Side Effects
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
- Fever over 100 degrees F
- general feeling of discomfort or illness
Incidence not known
- difficulty with breathing or swallowing
- hives, itching, or skin rash
- puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- reddening of the skin, especially around the ears
- unusual tiredness or weakness
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
Who Should Not Be Immunised
- There are very few people who cannot be given meningococcal vaccines.
- Immunisation should be postponed if a child has a high temperature or serious infection. Minor infections such as coughs, colds and snuffles are no reason to postpone immunisation.
- The vaccine should not be given if there has been a severe reaction to a previous dose of vaccine . Also, it should not be given if a person is known to have a severe allergy to any of the ingredients in the vaccine.
- The vaccines are safe if you are breastfeeding.
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Young People Eligible For The Menacwy Vaccine
Young people born between 2 July 1996 and 1 July 2002 should have already been offered the vaccine by their GP or in school. If for any reason they missed out they are still eligible for the vaccine from their GP. If you aren’t planning to go to university, it is still important to get the vaccine. You only need to get the MenACWY vaccine once.If you haven’t yet received the vaccine, you can ask your GP.
Risk By Age Group And By Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Status
Children aged < 2 years
Children aged < 2 years have the highest incidence of meningococcal cases. The disease occurs most often in infants aged 35 months.
Adolescents aged 1519 years
A high number of meningococcal disease cases occurs among adolescents and young adults aged 1524 years, with peak rates of disease occurring in 1820-year-olds. Adolescents and young adults have the highest rate of meningococcal carriage and are thought to play an important role in transmitting the bacteria in a community.4
Adolescents and young adults in this age bracket who have a higher risk of acquiring the meningococcal bacteria are:
- people who live in close quarters, such as new military recruits and students living in residential accommodation
- people who have prolonged contact with a person who is carrying meningococcal bacteria5-7
- people who are smokers8-10
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have much higher incidence rates of meningococcal disease than non-Indigenous Australians.96 This is particularly among children aged < 15 years for the 2 most common meningococcal serogroups: B and W.
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