Tuesday, May 30, 2023

When Did Meningitis Vaccine Become Mandatory

Many Colleges Require Proof Of Menacwy Vaccination Within 5 Years Before Starting School

Good Question: How Does A Vaccine Become Required For MN Students?

Regardless of school requirements, CDC recommends a booster dose for all teens who received the first dose before their 16th birthday. The booster dose provides the best protection during the ages when teens are at highest risk. Teens who receive their first MenACWY vaccine dose at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.

Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines

CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.

Talk to your or your childs clinician about what is best for your specific situation.

Submitting Proof Of Vaccination

Do not submit your vaccination proof to Undergraduate Admissions or the Student Health Center.

Texas State uses Magnus Health SMR for managing compliance with the meningitis vaccination requirement. New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination directly to Magnus Health SMR. Students subject to the bacterial meningitis requirement will receive an email from Magnus Health SMR with instructions. Students will be charged $10 by Magnus Health SMR for processing the documents and verifying compliance with the vaccination requirement. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:

  • A document bearing the signature or stamp of the physician or his/her designee or public health personnel . Records without a signature or stamp will not be approved.
    • An official immunization record from a government health authority .
    • An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
    • Students using a pharmacy should download and provide the pharmacist with the generic immunization form available on the Magnus website, once they have paid their processing fee, to ensure they receive an approvable document from the pharmacist . H-E-B customers should request their Vaccine Administration Consent Form for submission to Magnus.
    • All records must be in English to be approved.

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    Vaccination Programme And Vaccines In India: Years Ahead

    The science of vaccine evolved across the globe in late 19th century and India was amongst a few countries to have been involved in these efforts. The cholera and typhoid vaccine trials and research and discovery of plague vaccine took place in the country. Vaccine institutes were set up in early and whole of twentieth century. Though the pattern moved from public to private vaccine manufacturing units but the country has retained self-sufficiency through indigenous production. Smallpox has been eradicated and the country has become poliomyelitis free since January 2011.

    In spite of all positive changes, there are ongoing challenges and shortcoming in the programme. The coverage with vaccines in National Immunization Programme is suboptimal and only 3/5th children receive all due vaccines and only 3/4th receive 3 doses of DPT vaccine. There are inter- and intra-state variations in the coverage. Data recording and reporting is sub-optimal and disease surveillance system desires a lot for improvement. The lack of supervision and monitoring is often cited and communication for increasing immunization coverage is limited. The system for AEFI surveillance is improving but still need to be strengthened. There have been systematic efforts in the last decade to show a hope that immunization coverage would be improved in coming months and years.

    Preteens And Teens Are At Increased Risk For Meningococcal Disease An Uncommon But Serious Illness

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    Meningococcal disease can be devastating and oftenand unexpectedlystrikes otherwise healthy people. Although meningococcal disease is uncommon, teens and young adults 16 through 23 years old are at increased risk. Meningococcal bacteria can cause severe, even deadly, infections like

    • Meningitis
    • Bacteremia or septicemia

    About 1 in 5 people who survive their meningococcal infection have permanent disabilities.

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    What Happens After The Immunization

    Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.

    A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.

    Cdc Does Not Routinely Recommend A Menb Vaccine For All Teens And Young Adults However All Teens May Get Vaccinated Preferably At 16 To 18 Years Old

    Serogroup B meningococcal disease is relatively rare. Outbreaks have occurred at several U.S. colleges during the past decade. CDCs current recommendation gives people access to MenB vaccines to help prevent this uncommon, but serious illness. However, clinicians and parents should discuss the risk of the disease and weigh the risks and benefits of vaccination. Available data suggest these vaccines are safe and provide protection, but that protection decreases fairly quickly after vaccination.

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    What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines

    Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.

    The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.

    Menb Vaccines Are Safe However As With Any Vaccine Side Effects Can Occur

    Ohio students required to have meningitis vaccine before school starts (WKYC)

    Available data suggest that MenB vaccines are safe. More than half of the people who get a MenB vaccine have mild problems following vaccination:

    • Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given
    • Tiredness
    • Fever or chills
    • Nausea or diarrhea

    These reactions usually get better on their own within 3 to 5 days, but serious reactions are possible.

    Teens are more likely to have side effects after MenB vaccination compared to other vaccines given to preteens and teens. Those other vaccines include HPV, MenACWY, and Tdap vaccines.

    CDC continually monitors the safety of all vaccines, including MenB vaccines. For more information, view the Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine Information Statement.

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    Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required

    CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.

    Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Recommended

    Meningococcal disease is caused by a type of bacteria. It can lead to an infection of the bloodstream or meningitis, or both, and can be life-threatening if not quickly treated. The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.

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    Immunity And Herd Immunity

    Vaccination policies aim to produce immunity to preventable diseases. Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. Herd immunity refers to the idea that the pathogen will have trouble spreading when a significant part of the population has immunity against it. This protects those unable to get the vaccine due to medical conditions, such as immune disorders. However, for herd immunity to be effective in a population, a majority of those who are vaccine-eligible must be vaccinated.

    State and local vaccination requirements for daycare and school entry are important tools for maintaining high vaccination coverage rates, and in turn, lower rates of vaccine-preventable diseases .

    Vaccine-preventable diseases remain a common cause of childhood mortality with an estimated three million deaths each year. Each year, vaccination prevents between two and three million deaths worldwide, across all age groups, from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles.

    Who Is At Most Risk For Meningococcal Disease

    Meningococcal B vaccinations made mandatory at Oregon ...

    High-risk groups include anyone with a damaged spleen or whose spleen has been removed, those with persistent complement component deficiency , HIV infection, those traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is very common, microbiologists who routinely work with the bacteria and people who may have been exposed to meningococcal disease during an outbreak. People who live in certain settings such as college dormitories and military housing are also at greater risk of disease from some serotypes.

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    Find Out What’s Happening In Beverly

    Also, starting this fall, the state of Illinois is introducing a new requirement for vaccination against meningococcal disease for students entering 6th and 12th grades.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children ages 11-15 years old receive MCV4 vaccine for meningitis, and a one-time booster preferably administered at age 16 through 18 years, before the peak in increased risk.

    Adolescents who receive their first dose of MCV4 at or after 16 years do not need a booster dose.

    The family doctor and health clinics can administer vaccines. Wellness centers, such as Walgreens, also offer back to school vaccinations.

    Illinois law also requires that proof of an eye examination by an optometrist or physical who provides complete eye examinations to be submitted to the school no later than October 15 of the year the child is first enrolled or as required by the school for other children.

    Chicago Public Schools provides a list of immunizations and examinations required for students to meet minimum health requirements. Parents and guardians with further questions can also call the CPS Office of Student Health and Wellness at 773-553-3560.

    Vaccine Development In The 1980s Hepatitis B And Haemophilus Influenzae Type B

    The vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b was licensed in 1985 and placed on the recommended schedule in 1989. When the schedule was published again in 1994, the hepatitis B vaccine had been added.

    The hepatitis B vaccine was not new, as it had been licensed in 1981 and recommended for high-risk groups such as infants whose mothers were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, healthcare workers, intravenous drug users, homosexual men and people with multiple sexual partners. However, immunization of these groups didn’t effectively stop transmission of hepatitis B virus. Thats because about one-third of patients with acute disease were not in identifiable risk groups. The change of recommendation to immunize all infants in 1991 was the result of these failed attempts to control hepatitis B by only immunizing high-risk groups. Following this recommendation, hepatitis B disease was virtually eliminated in children less than 18 years of age in the United States.

    1985 – 1994 | Recommended Vaccines

    * Given in combination as DTP** Given in combination as MMR

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    What All Parents Need To Know

    To keep children in schools healthy, Georgia requires children to get vaccines against certain diseases before going to school. If youre unsure of Georgias school requirements, now is the time to check with your childs doctor, your childs school, or your local health department. That way, your child can get any needed vaccines before the back-to-school rush.

    School Vaccine Mandates Aren’t New: A History Of Requirements

    eNCA Business | Introduction of mandatory vaccines

    California will require schoolkids to get the COVID-19 vaccine, and other states or districts may follow suit. But school vaccine requirements have been around for decades.

    Requiring vaccines for kids to go to school dates back decades.

    Last week, California Gov. Gavin Newsom issued future COVID-19 vaccine requirements for kids in grades K-12 who attend school in-person. The mandate will only go into effect after the vaccine has been fully approved for kids by the US Food and Drug Administration, which means it’ll be rolled out first for kids in grades 7-12, and eventually for children in kindergarten through 6th grade.

    California was the first state to add COVID-19 vaccination to the list of vaccine requirements for kids, but other states and districts may do the same in the coming weeks or months.

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    Vaccine requirements in schools are far from being a new concept. As the question continues to be debated whether your local school will mandate a COVID-19 vaccine for students, it’s important to take a look back at the history of vaccine requirements — because vaccinations have been required in schools for a long, long time.

    “I agree with what Gov. Newsom did in California,” Dr. Anthony Fauci told CBS. “People need to realize that having a vaccine requirement for schools is not a new, novel thing that is very peculiar or specific to COVID-19. We’ve been doing this for decades.”

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    A History Of Vaccine Mandates In Schools

    The first vaccine mandate in U.S. schools was enacted in Massachusetts in the 1850s to prevent smallpox transmission. By the 1900s, nearly half of all states had the same requirement.

    Initially when mandates were started, the idea was to prevent epidemic spread of diseases, and to essentially control epidemics, Shen said. Through the decades, it evolved to increasing vaccination coverage that was deemed important for public health in the absence of an epidemic.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , by 1963, 20 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico had mandates requiring a variety of vaccines to enter school. But enforcement was uneven.

    We knew that transmission in schools was a really big problem, Shen said. When we took a look at jurisdictions that were strictly enforcing mandates that excluded unvaccinated kids, it showed that mandates were really effective because the states that strictly enforced the school entry requirements had lower incident rates.

    In 1977, the U.S. federal government set up the aimed at increasing vaccination rates in children against the seven diseases for which vaccines are routinely given in childhood, including:

    • diphtheria
    • tetanus

    This is when all 50 states widely adopted mandatory school vaccinations.

    Dr. Sara Siddiqui, a pediatrician at NYU Langones Hassenfeld Childrens Hospital, points to some of the many successes of vaccine requirements in schools.

    Vaccines For Your Preteens And Teens

    Preteens and teens need vaccines, too! As kids get older, they are still at risk for certain diseases. Before heading back to school, three vaccines are recommended for 11-12 year oldsHPV, Tdap, and meningococcal conjugate vaccinefor continued protection.

    The HPV vaccine is important because it can prevent HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life. For other diseases, like whooping cough, the protection from vaccine doses received in childhood fades over time. Thats why 1112-year-olds are also recommended to get the booster shot called Tdap to help protect them from whooping cough, tetanus, and diphtheria. The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against some of the bacteria that can cause infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord and bloodstream infections . These illnesses can be very serious, even fatal.

    Its important to know that flu can be serious, even for healthy, young people. Preteens and teens are no exception, so older kids should get at least one flu vaccine every year.

    Kids under 8 who have never had a flu vaccine, and those who have previously gotten only one dose, should get 2 doses of flu vaccine this season. Kids should get the first dose as soon as the flu vaccine is available and should get their second dose at least 28 days after the first dose.

    Its Not Too Late

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    Vaccine Mandates In Schools Arent New Theyve Been Used Since 1850

    • As COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe, debates have emerged about whether or not the vaccines should be required to attend school for children who are old enough to get one.
    • The United States has a long history of requiring vaccines to enter school.
    • Experts say that while concerns around the use of COVID-19 vaccines in kids are understandable, theyve been shown safe and effective in children ages 12 and up.

    As the landscape of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve with the Delta and Delta plus variant, debates have come up about whether COVID-19 vaccinations should be required to attend public schools in the fall.

    Currently, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is authorized for use in children and teens ages 12 and older.

    Both Pfizer and Moderna are conducting vaccine trials in children between the ages of 6 months and 11 years old. Experts expect young children to have access to the COVID-19 vaccines by the fall or mid-winter.

    Several states, including Florida, Alabama, Arizona, Indiana, Montana, Ohio, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Utah have already enacted legislation to ban public schools and universities from requiring students to have a COVID-19 vaccine to attend classes.

    But pediatricians and public health experts point out that several other routine vaccinations are already required in the United States for children to attend childcare or school.

    But What Happens When People Opt Out

    Partnership Works to Protect Burkina Faso From Meningitis ...

    If you decide not to visit your dentist, choose to eat badly or refuse to wear a helmet while cycling, you put yourself at risk. The direct impact on other peoples health is zero.

    With vaccines, the health of your community could be affected. You might catch and spread infectious diseases at school, in the workplace or in public places.

    If enough people in a community are vaccinated, herd immunity can be achieved. This makes it very difficult for infectious diseases to spread because a significant majority of people are protected.

    Given that we have a stake in our neighbours vaccination status, is it reasonable to insist that everyone have their vaccines? Should it be a condition of accessing education, employment or social payments?

    To help understand the issues at play, we sat down with some leading experts and asked whether mandatory vaccination is the answer to minimising the impact of diseases such as measles, diphtheria and pertussis.

    Dr Julie Leask of the University of Sydney, says regulation is useful but that absolute mandates go too far. We need requirements that encourage parents to get their children fully vaccinated, she says. But there need to be exemptions for people that dont vaccinate. It should be harder to get an exemption than to get a vaccine.

    We have shown that there is a reduction in vaccine refusal and increase in vaccine coverage if you change the balance of convenience of obtaining exemptions, he says.

    Now what?

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