How Were Humans Invented
The first human ancestors appeared between five million and seven million years ago, probably when some apelike creatures in Africa began to walk habitually on two legs. They were flaking crude stone tools by 2.5 million years ago. Then some of them spread from Africa into Asia and Europe after two million years ago.
Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine.
The dose schedule for MenACWY vaccine depends on the vaccine brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands .
Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, a single dose of MenACWY vaccine is recommended. In this age group, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive a course of MenB vaccine.
The dose schedule for MenB vaccine depends on the brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
People aged 29 years should receive 2 doses of Bexsero, 8 weeks apart.
People aged 10 years can receive 2 doses of either MenB vaccine:
- 2 doses of Bexsero, with 8 weeks between doses, or
- 2 doses of Trumenba, with 6 months between doses
How Effective Is This Vaccine
The MPSV4 vaccine is 85 percent to 100 percent effective at preventing infection from the subtypes of meningococcus found in the vaccine . However, the vaccine does not protect against serogroup B meningococcus. Based on results of laboratory studies, MCV4 is believed to be as effective as MPSV4 and to have a longer duration of immunity. Who should not receive meningococcal vaccine?
People who have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of either meningococcal vaccine or to one of the vaccine components. People who are moderately or severely ill.
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
- This vaccine is provided free to infants as part of their routine immunizations. The vaccine is given as a series of two doses. The first is given at 2 months of age, and the second at 12 months.
- This vaccine is also free for people:
- Born before 2002, who are 24 years of age and under who did not get a dose of vaccine on or after their 10th birthday.
- Who have been in close contact with someone with meningococcal type C disease.
False Claim: The 1918 Influenza Pandemic Was Caused By Vaccines
6 Min Read
The claim that the influenza pandemic of 1918 was the after-effect of the massive nation-wide vaccine campaign is unfounded. A vaccine against the flu did not exist at the time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , having no vaccine to protect against influenza infection and no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that can be associated with influenza infections meant that control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions,such as isolation, quarantine, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants, and limitations of public gatherings, which were applied unevenly.
According to the CDC report Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999, prior to 1900, the vaccines for smallpox, rabies, typhoid, cholera and plague had been developed in the U.S. . The report states that although the first vaccine against smallpox was developed in 1796, greater than 100 years later its use had not been widespread enough to fully control the disease Four other vaccines — against rabies, typhoid, cholera, and plague — had been developed late in the 19th century but were not used widely by 1900.
Killing an estimated 675,000 Americans , the 1918 H1N1 flu pandemic was indeed the deadliest flu pandemic in modern history .
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Where And When Can I Get The Vaccine
Talk to your doctor or local public health clinic to find out where and when your child should get vaccinated.
- The cost of Men-C-C is covered everywhere in Canada.
- Many provinces currently cover the cost of MCV-4 vaccine.
- Currently, no provinces or territories cover the cost of Men-B vaccine for all children. Some provide it for children at high risk of getting meningococcal disease.
People With Medical Conditions That Increase Their Risk Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
People with medical conditions specified in List. Specified medical conditions associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines.
- a full primary course of MenACWY vaccine, with ongoing booster doses
- a full primary course of MenB vaccine
People with these specific medical conditions have a higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease. They are recommended to receive extra doses compared with people who do not have these conditions.
The number of doses needed depends on the vaccine brand used and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
For people aged 2 years receiving MenACWY vaccine, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. The same vaccine should be used for both vaccine doses.
Regular booster doses are required for MenACWY vaccines, but not for MenB vaccines.
For more details see:
People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
They should receive the 1st dose of MenACWY conjugate vaccine about 2 years after the most recent dose of 4vMenPV, with a recommended minimum interval of 6 months.1-3
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When Was Meningitis Vaccine Invented
When was meningitis vaccine invented? These antibodies then protect the body by attacking and killing the bacteria if it should invade your system. The first vaccine meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4 was approved in 1978.
When did they start giving meningitis vaccine? Before the MenC vaccine was introduced in 1999 there were over 1000 cases of disease every year.
Who invented the meningitis vaccine? Rino Rappuoli is Global Head of Vaccines Research for Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics. He discovered and developed the Meningitis B vaccine recently administered at Princeton.
What is the meaning of proprietary information? Proprietary Information shall mean information developed, created, or discovered by the Company, or which became known by, or was conveyed to the Company, which has commercial value in the Companys business.
There Are Three Types Of Meningococcal Vaccines:
- The meningococcal C vaccine that protects against infection from one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type C.
- The meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine that protects against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135.
- The meningococcal B vaccine that protects against infection by one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type B.
The type of vaccine recommended depends on a person’s age and risk factors.
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Is The Meningitis Vaccine Optional
A primary care doctor or their college student health center is the best places to get information for young adults. As Messina points out to parents: For the best overall vaccine protection, both meningitis B and B vaccines should be given to teens as per this schedule although the CDC does not state otherwise.
Does The Vaccine Work
The MenB vaccine has been tested on thousands of adults and children, and from these clinical trials it is thought that the new vaccine will prevent a high proportion of cases of group B meningococcal disease. However because the disease is rare, the exact number of cases that will be prevented will not be known until the vaccine has been used routinely.
In February 2016 Public Health England published research which showed that the MenB vaccine should help to provide protection against the aggressive strain of MenW disease circulating in the UK , as well as protecting against MenB disease.
In September 2016 Public Health England reported on research carried out on babies in the UK who were eligible to receive the new MenB vaccine. The research showed that the number of cases of meningitis and septicaemia caused by MenB infection in these babies had nearly halved over the previous year . See the research published in The Lancet in October 2016.
Public Health England estimates that the MenB programme prevented about 250 cases of invasive MenB disease in the first three years of the programme. In the second year of the programme, there was an estimated 72% reduction in the number of cases of invasive MenB disease in infants, and in the third year of the programme there was a further estimated 60% reduction in cases of invasive MenB disease in infants.
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Who Should Get Which Meningococcal Vaccine And When
Although MCV4 is the preferred vaccine for most people, if it is not available when it’s time for the vaccination, MPSV4 can be used.
Routine immunization with the meningococcal vaccine MCV4 is recommended for children ages 11 or 12, with a booster to be given between ages 16 and 18. Vaccinations are also recommended for the following groups:
- College freshmen living in a dorm
- Military recruits
- Someone who has a damaged spleen
- Someone whose spleen has been removed
- Someone with terminal complement component deficiency
- Microbiologists who are routinely exposed to meningococcal bacteria
- Someone traveling to or residing in a country where the disease is common
- Someone who has been exposed to meningitis
Preteens who are 11 and 12 usually have the shot at their 11- or 12-year-old checkup. An appointment should be made to get the shot for teenagers who did not have it when they were 11 or 12.
The vaccine may be given to pregnant women. However, since MCV4 and MenB are newer vaccines, there is limited data about their effect on pregnant women. They should only be used if clearly needed.
Anyone who is allergic to any component used in the vaccine should not get the vaccine. It’s important to tell your doctor about all your allergies.
People with mild illness such as a cold or congestion can usually get the vaccine. But people who are moderately or severely ill at the time of vaccine administration should wait until they recover.
Iv4 Vaccine Administration And Schedule
Schedule: Nimenrix has been approved for use in individuals aged 12 months to 55 years.
Dosage: 0.5ml of reconstituted vaccine should be administered.
Route of administration: This vaccine is intended for intramuscular injection. It may be given in the deltoid muscle or for children 12-23 months of age in the anterolateral thigh.
Booster doses: The manufacturer has not yet determined the need for a booster dose, however NACI recommends periodic boosters doses for individuals at high risk for meningococcal disease or who have ongoing increased risk of exposure.
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Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
How Soon After Their First Dose Should People Who Remain At Risk For Meningococcal Disease Be Vaccinated Again
The interval between doses depends on the age at which they received their first dose. Children who received their previous dose before their seventh birthday should get vaccinated with a minimum interval of 3 years. Children who received their previous dose at or after age 7 years and all adults should get vaccinated with a minimum of 5 years between doses.
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Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
Nature Of The Disease
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterium is commonly known as meningococcus.
There are 13 known meningococcal serogroups, distinguished by differences in surface polysaccharides of the bacteriums outer membrane capsule. Globally, serogroups A, B, C, W and Y most commonly cause disease.
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Getting The Meningococcal Acwy Vaccine
The meningococcal ACWY vaccine is free for all students in year 10 aged 1416 years through school-based immunisation programs. Students will receive a consent form from their school which must be signed by a parent or guardian and returned to school before a vaccination is provided.
What Happens After The Immunization
Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.
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Nhs Meningitis B Vaccination Programme Begins Across The Uk
Jab to protect against potentially fatal disease has been added to NHS childhood immunisation programme
First published on Tue 1 Sep 2015 00.01 BST
A vaccination programme to protect young children in the UK against the potentially fatal disease meningitis B begins on Tuesday.
The jab is being added to the NHS childhood immunisation programme and will be offered to babies at the ages of two months, four months and 12-13 months.
In March 2014 the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommended a national MenB immunisation programme for infants using a three-dose schedule.
But there was a delay in making it available while negotiations took place between the Department of Health and GlaxoSmithKline , which makes the Bexsero MenB vaccine.
The introduction of the programme means Britain will become the first country in the world with a nationwide meningitis B vaccination programme. The public health minister, Jane Ellison, said it was a landmark moment.
The Meningitis Research Foundation chief executive, Christopher Head, said: We are delighted the MenB vaccine has been introduced as it has been at the top of this charitys agenda for many years. We hope this vaccine will save many lives and spare countless families the trauma of seeing a loved one die or become seriously disabled because of MenB.
Infants under one year of age are most at risk, and the number of cases peaks at around five or six months of age.
What Kind Of Vaccines Are They
The MPSV4 vaccine is made from the outer polysaccharide capsule of the meningococcal bacteria. The meningococcal conjugate vaccines are made by conjugating the capsular polysaccharide antigens individually to diphtheria toxoid protein. Both the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines protect against serotypes A, C, Y and W-135 and do not contain live bacteria.
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Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine
- People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Tell the provider if you or your child feel dizzy, have vision changes, or have ringing in the ears.
- As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.
What Are The Risks Of Gbs With The Mcv4 Vaccine
Between 2005 and 2012, more than 18 million doses of MCV4 were distributed. It’s uncertain how many of those have actually been given. In that same time period, there have been 99 confirmed cases of GBS, a serious nervous system disorder, reported within six weeks of the vaccine being taken. There is not enough data at this time to tell whether or not the vaccine was a factor. But analysis of the data suggests that the incidence of GBS is no higher for people receiving the vaccine than the incidence of GBS in the general population.
Still, the timing of the onset of symptoms has raised concern. The CDC is continuing to study the issue and has recommended that people be told about the study when they are considering the vaccine. The current opinion is that even if there is a slight increase in the risk of GBS, it’s significantly outweighed by the risk of meningococcal disease without the vaccine.
Talk to your doctor if you have any further concerns about the vaccine and GBS.
Pediatrics, published online Feb. 1, 2011. CDC web site: “Meningitis Questions & Answers,” “Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know,” “Meningococcal Vaccination,” “Vaccines and Preventable Diseases: Meningococcal: Who Needs to Be Vaccinated?” “Meningococcal vaccine side-effects,” “GBS and Menactra Meningococcal Vaccine.”
VaccineInformation.org: “Meningococcal Disease Vaccine.”
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