Sunday, March 26, 2023

When Do Babies Get Their First Vaccines

What Are The Most Common Side Effects That Parents Can Expect

What to expect when your child is vaccinated | How Vaccines Work

The types of side effects that a child experiences from a vaccine are usually very minor, not enough to keep them home from school even. Theyre things like a slight fever or redness or soreness around the injection site. And those are things that you can just manage at home.

Those sorts of mild side effects resolve within 12 to 24 hours and they go away on their own and they dont cause any long-term problems.

Why Your Baby Might Not Get A Vaccine

There are some reasons why immunisation might not be right for your baby. Its important to tell your GP or nurse about any illnesses or allergies your baby has had. Before vaccination, the doctor or nurse needs to know if your baby:

  • has a very high temperature, vomiting or diarrhoea on the day of the appointment
  • has had convulsions or fits
  • had a bad reaction to a previous immunisation
  • is allergic to anything
  • has had treatment for cancer
  • has an illness that affects the immune system, for example leukaemia, HIV or AIDS
  • takes medicine that affects the immune system, for example high dose steroids or treatments given after organ transplant or for cancers
  • has any other serious illness

Knowing about your babys health helps the doctor or nurse choose the best immunisations. A family history of illness doesnt mean your baby can’t have a vaccination.

How The Second Flu Shot Works

The second flu shot is a booster dose to improve the effectiveness of the flu vaccine in children. The second dose is given at least 28 days after the first dose. That first dose stimulates the child’s immune system, but it may not be enough to produce the level of antibodies needed for protection from the flu.

The second dose results in the child’s immune system producing enough antibodies so they will be able to fight off influenza when exposed. If your child didn’t receive the second dose, they likely have some protection against the flu, but it may not be enough.

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Why We Need Vaccines

Vaccines have successfully lowered the rates of disease in countries with strong vaccination programs.

Some of the diseases that vaccines prevent have no treatment or cure. These diseases can cause:

  • severe illness
  • disability
  • death

Even with improved living conditions and modern hygiene, vaccines are still very important to prevent infections that could make your child very sick.

Some diseases are now rarely seen in Canada because of long-term high rates of vaccination in the population, including:

However, these diseases still exist in some countries, so people who live in them or travel to them may become infected. They can introduce and spread these diseases when they return to Canada. High rates of vaccination against these diseases help to prevent further spread and outbreaks.

The best way to protect your children’s health is to prevent these diseases in the first place by keeping their vaccinations up to date. Some examples include:


Measles is still a leading cause of death in children worldwide, with 89,780 cases in 2016. One person with measles can infect 12 to 18 people who haven’t had the vaccine.

Measles is a very contagious disease. You can catch it by walking into a room that an infected person sneezed in an hour before you entered.

Why Weren’t Children Included In The First Covid

Grieving dad tells newborn to

Childrens immune systems are very different from those of adults, and their immune responses can vary according to their age, explains Dr. OLeary.

While a teenager may respond to a vaccine similarly as an adult, an elementary school-age child, a toddler or an infant could have a very different reaction. Thats why its so important to always hold clinical trials in kids separately.

The trials in children go through two stages. The first stage looks at different dose levels specifically doses that are one-quarter, one-half or equal to the doses given to adults, explains Rajeev Fernando, M.D., an infectious disease expert in Southampton, New York, and member of the What to Expect Medical Review Board. As a next step, those doses are then tested against placebo injections.

About 24 percent of the U.S. population around 74 million people is under 18, and experts say getting kids vaccinated is key to controlling the pandemic.

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How Does Immunisation Work

Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.

Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.

It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.

Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.

Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.

Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.

In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:

The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .

Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.

Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.

What Is The Nip Schedule

The National Immunisation Program Schedule is a series of immunisations given at specific times throughout your life. The immunisations range from birth through to adulthood.

All vaccines listed in the NIP Schedule are free. Eligibility for free vaccines under the NIP is linked to eligibility for Medicare benefits.

To get the best possible protection, make sure you have your immunisations on time, every time. The NIP Schedule below shows which vaccines you should get and when.

This schedule card provides recommended vaccines and schedule points under the National Immunisation Program from 1 July 2020 .

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When Will My Baby Get The Mmr Vaccine

Two doses are recommended by the CDC. The first is given at 12 to 15 months, the second between 4 and 6 years of age .

For babies who will be traveling internationally, however, a dose is recommended between 6 and 12 months. Kids who receive their first dose before a year of age should still also receive the two recommended doses per the above schedule.

Children In Licensed Daycare Centres

Reduce vaccination pain in babies – Part 1: How and why?

If you want your child to attend daycare, and decide not to vaccinate them due to medical, religious or philosophical reasons, you will need to give your daycare a valid written exemption. If the disease appears in your childs daycare centre, your child may have to stay out of daycare until the disease is no longer present.

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Community Immunity And Disease Prevention

The more people who are vaccinated in the community, the lower the risk of infection for those who:

  • aren’t vaccinated
  • developed only partial immunity from the vaccine

This means that when your child is vaccinated, you protect them as well as those around them.

Community immunity helps protect those at high risk of developing disease and severe complications or death, such as:

  • adults 65 years of age and older
  • infants and children too young to be fully vaccinated
  • people with health conditions that affect their immune system, such as those undergoing chemotherapy to treat cancer

Transcript Of ‘getting Your Baby’s First Vaccines: Mini Parenting Master Class’ Video

As a parent myself, I know that going to get your child vaccinated can cause a lot of anxiety. You dont want to do anything to hurt your child and the idea of them getting a needle can cause a lot of concern for parents. So, its important to remember therere lots of strategies you can use.

My name is Shannon MacDonald and this is my Mini Parenting Master Class on getting your babys first shots.

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When Second Flu Shots Are Needed For Kids

If your child is getting the seasonal flu shot for the first time, you can expect that they will also need a second shot a month later. This probably wasn’t the standard when you were a kid, but it has been recommended since 2009.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all children 6 months old through 8 years old should get two doses of flu vaccine the first year that they are vaccinated against the flu. If your child had their first flu shot last year but only got a single shot, then this year, they should get a flu shot and a booster shot.

What Are Some Common Side Effects Of 4 Month Shots For Babies

Baby Vaccines at Birth

Shots are not fun for babies but luckily babies wont remember getting them! You can prepare yourself by knowing that this kind of health protection might have some mild, common side effects.

Remember, side effects happen because your babys immune system is triggered to build itself by the vaccination. Shots at any age cannot cause the disease they are protecting from.

Normal side effects of 4-month shots in babies include:

  • redness or swelling where the shot was given
  • pain or tenderness around the shot area
  • irritability or fussiness

Some kinds of medications like steroids can also temporarily weaken the immune system. Your pediatrician may delay 4-month shots if your baby is on steroids or other medications.

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How Vaccines Are Given

Most vaccines are given by needle in the upper arm or thigh. Some vaccines, like the rotavirus vaccine, are given by mouth. There’s also a flu vaccine for children that’s sprayed into the nose.

Some vaccines are given separately. Others, like the MMR vaccine, protect against 3 diseases in one vaccine.

Your child’s immune system can learn from more than 1 vaccine at a time. For instance, babies can respond to 10,000 different antigens at any one time.

Immunisations Your Baby Will Have At 8 12 And 16 Weeks

At 8 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:

  • diphtheria
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • hepatitis B
  • meningococcal group B disease

These will be given as 2 injections and drops into the mouth.

At 12 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:

  • diphtheria

These will be given as 2 injections and drops into the mouth.

At 16 weeks, your baby will have immunisations against:

  • diphtheria

These will be given as 2 injections.

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Watch Out For Meningitis And Septicaemia

Both meningitis and septicaemia are very serious. It is important that you recognise the signs and symptoms and know what to do if you see them. Early symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia may be similar to a cold or flu .

However, people with meningitis or septicaemia can become seriously ill within hours, so it is important to act fast.


Meningitis is an infection of the lining of the brain. Meningitis can be caused by several types of bacteria including pneumococcus, meningococcus and Haemophilus influenzae or by viruses.

The bacteria that cause meningitis and septicaemia , can also cause pericarditis and arthritis and other serious infections.

In babies, the main symptoms of meningitis may include:

  • a high-pitched, moaning cry
  • being irritable when picked up
  • a bulging fontanelle
  • feeling drowsy and not responding to you, or being difficult to wake
  • being floppy and having no energy
  • stiff with jerky movements
  • refusing feeds and vomiting
  • having skin that is pale, blotchy or turning blue
  • a fever
  • a fever
  • diarrhoea and stomach cramps

The glass test

Press the side of a clear drinking glass firmly against the rash so you can see if the rash fades and loses colour under pressure. If it doesnt change colour, contact your doctor immediately.

Further information

The following charities provide information, advice and support:

Meningitis Research Foundation

Why Do Children Get So Many Vaccinations

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A number of vaccinations are required in the first few years of a childs life to protect them against some of the most serious childhood infectious diseases. The immune system in young children does not work as well as the immune system in older children and adults, because it is still immature. Therefore, more doses of the vaccine are needed.

Another reason children get many vaccinations is that new vaccines against serious infections continue to be developed. The number of injections is reduced by the use of combination vaccines, where several vaccines are combined into one injection.

For a full list of recommended vaccinations for children, visit the general National Immunisation Program schedule or the National Immunisation Program schedule for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

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Where To Get Immunisations

Your child can get the immunisations recommended on the NIP schedule from several places, including:

  • GP clinics
  • community health clinics and Aboriginal community health services
  • local government immunisation clinics .

GPs can give other immunisations that arent on the NIP schedule, like those needed by children with medical conditions, as well as some travel immunisations. Travel immunisation clinics can also give you advice and all the immunisations your child needs for travel.

There are specialist immunisation clinics in most states and territories. These clinics are for children whove had adverse reactions to previous immunisations or who are in high-risk groups, or for families who are concerned about immunising their children. You usually need a referral from your GP or specialist to go to one of these clinics.

Your GP, child and family health nurse or paediatrician is the best person to talk with about immunisation. Your childs health professionals know you and your child best. Theyll listen to you, take the time to answer your questions, and give you the most up-to-date information about immunisation.

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given At 2 Months 4 Months And 12 Months

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects children against invasive pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis .

What is invasive pneumococcal disease ?

IPD is an infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae . This type of bacteria can cause any of the following:

  • pneumonia
  • bacteraemia
  • meningitis

Pneumococcal infection is also a frequent cause of ear infections .

Pneumonia, bacteraemia and meningitis can sometimes cause death or long lasting complications such as deafness, especially in people with a high-risk medical condition.

Sometimes antibiotics do not work against the pneumococcal infection . Antibiotic resistance occurs when drugs, used to treat the infection, are no longer effective in killing or stopping the growth of particular microorganisms, such as pneumococcal bacteria. When there is antibiotic resistance, it is more difficult to treat the infection.

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Why Children Are Vaccinated At Such A Young Age

Children are vaccinated at a very young age because this is when they are most vulnerable to diseases. At this point their immune system is not developed enough to be able to fight serious infections.

The vaccination schedule is based on infants’ ability to create an immune response. Vaccines are given to protect them against 14 serious diseases at a time when they are most at risk.

Medical experts do not advise delaying or spreading out the recommended vaccines. This does not provide any added benefit to your child.

How Long Vaccines Take To Work

Vaccinating Pregnant Women

It usually takes a few weeks for vaccines to work. Your child will not be protected immediately.

Also, most vaccines need to be given several times to build up long-lasting protection. For example, a child who gets only 1 or 2 doses of the whooping cough vaccine is only partly protected. They may still catch whooping cough if the course is not completed.

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Do Vaccination Needles Hurt

Although generally quick, getting vaccinations can be painful for your child. The best way you can make it as painless as possible is to hold your child, and soothe and comfort them. Breastfeeding can also help reduce pain. You can use a number of other techniques to reduce the pain your child might experience.

If Your Child Is Missing A Vaccine

Life can get busy and you may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. Your child may also have missed vaccines from your health care provider or their school because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

It is important to call your health care provider or local public health authority if your child missed receiving any vaccines. They can help your child get back on track with the recommended vaccination schedule. This will help to protect your child from many vaccine-preventable diseases.

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Mmr Vaccination For Adults

Women who are planning to get pregnant need to be up-to-date on their MMR vaccine. Adults who received two doses of the MMR vaccine as children are considered protected for life and usually don’t need a booster dose, though one may be necessary if you’re at risk because of a mumps outbreak.

From the What to Expect editorial team and Heidi Murkoff, author of What to Expect When You’re Expecting. What to Expect follows strict reporting guidelines and uses only credible sources, such as peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions and highly respected health organizations. Learn how we keep our content accurate and up-to-date by reading our medical review and editorial policy.

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