Monday, September 25, 2023

When Do Babies Have Their Vaccinations

Where Can I Get The Chickenpox Vaccination For My Child

Breastfeed to minimize vaccination pain 6 months

The chickenpox vaccination isn’t available on the NHS . In fact, the NHS advises against giving it to babies you can read more about why in our article on the immunisation schedule.

However, if you do still want to vaccinate your child against chickenpox, you can pay to have it done privately.

It’s available to children over the age of one.

The vaccine consists of two separate jabs, at least six weeks apart, and is considered to be 98% effective for children.

Places that offer it include Boots, Superdrug, large pharmacies and private clinics.

Expect to pay around £65-75 per dose .

No, in fact it’s particularly important that premature babies have their vaccinations on time. They are particularly vulnerable and may have weaker immune systems so vaccinations will give them the protection they need from nasty illness and potentially dangerous diseases.

Their schedule should begin eight weeks after birth, even if they were born prematurely.

Very premature babies may even have their first vaccinations in hospital.

Why Your Child Might Not Get A Vaccine

There are some reasons why immunisation might not be right for your child. Its important to tell your GP or nurse about any illnesses or allergies your child has had. Before vaccination, the doctor or nurse needs to know if your child:

  • has a very high temperature, vomiting or diarrhoea on the day of the appointment
  • has had convulsions or fits
  • had a bad reaction to a previous immunisation
  • is allergic to anything
  • has had treatment for cancer
  • has an illness that affects the immune system, for example leukaemia, HIV or AIDS
  • takes medicine that affects the immune system, for example, high dose steroids or treatments given after organ transplant or for cancers
  • has any other serious illness

Knowing about your childs health helps the doctor or nurse choose the best vaccinations. A family history of illness doesnt mean your child cannot have a vaccination.

Baby Immunisations And Vaccinations

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We look at the early baby immunisations and vaccinations schedule. Heres what you need to know and why it matters

You might wonder why babies need extra protection or any immunisations in the first place. Its because before theyre born, babies receive antibodies against infections from the placenta. This gives your newborn immediate but short-lived protection. This is a type of natural immunity called passive immunity .

After several weeks to three or four months that passive immunity wears off so your baby is not protected from infections. That means your baby will need active immunisation through vaccinations. This is where the immunisations programme comes in.

Whether youre all for the vaccinations modern medicine has brought us or not, they have made formerly common childhood diseases rare . And the decision to vaccinate or not can make a difference. In August 2019, England lost its ‘measles-free’ status with the World Health Organization. This is due to 231 confirmed cases of measles in the first three months of 2019 . Experts are pointing to ‘sub-optimal’ take-up of MMR for this .

Heres what you need to know about vaccinations and baby immunisations.

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What Is A Vaccination Schedule

A vaccination schedule is a plan with recommendations for which vaccines your children should get and when they should get them. Vaccines are one of the most important ways to prevent children from getting some dangerous diseases. By exposing you to a germ in a controlled way, vaccines teach your body to recognize and fight it.

Government vaccine recommendations are just that — recommendations. You arent forced to get them. But state laws require your kids to have certain vaccines before they can go to daycare, school, or college, with some exceptions. Vaccines protect not just your child, but everyone they come in contact with. The more people who get vaccinated, the harder it is for a disease to spread.

Before theyre approved for use and added to the schedule, vaccines go through years of testing to make sure they work and that theyre safe. The government keeps track of any reports of side effects to make sure no problems come up.

Who Should Not Have The Bcg Vaccination

[Withdrawn] Child flu vaccine pilot has positive impact ...

The BCG vaccine is not recommended for:

  • people who have already had a BCG vaccination
  • people with a past history of TB
  • people with a positive tuberculin skin test
  • people who have had a previous severe allergic reaction to any of the substances used in the vaccine
  • children under 2 years of age who might have TB because someone they live with has it
  • people who have a septic skin condition at the site where the injection would be given
  • infants born to a mother who has medicines that suppress the immune system during pregnancy
  • babies who have or might have severe combined immunodeficiency
  • people with a weakened immune system, either as a result of a health condition such as HIV, treatments such as chemotherapy, or medicines that suppress the immune system, such as steroid tablets
  • people who have cancer of the white blood cells, bone marrow or lymph nodes, such as leukaemia or lymphoma
  • people who are seriously unwell
  • pregnant women

BCG vaccination is not usually offered to people over the age of 16 because there is limited evidence of how well the vaccine works in adults.

Page last reviewed: 26 April 2019 Next review due: 26 April 2022

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How Do Vaccines Work

The dead or weakened germs in vaccines help your child’s immune system to make two important tools: antibodies and immune memory. Together, these tools will help your child recognize and fight off the germs if exposed to them in the future.

Most children are fully protected after they are vaccinated. This means that they will never get serious vaccine-preventable diseases.

In rare cases, children who are vaccinated can still get the disease because they only get partial protection from the vaccine. This is more common in children with a health problem that affects their immune system. They may develop mild symptoms if they are exposed to a disease, but will not suffer serious complications.

It’s just like… seatbelts are not 100% effective at protecting you while driving, but they significantly reduce your risk of being injured.

Do Indoor Rabbits Need Vaccinating

Our vets would recommend vaccinating both outdoor and indoor rabbits. Although indoor rabbits are less likely to come into contact with wild rabbits, myxomatosis, RHD-1 and RHD-2 can easily be spread by insect bites, on other pets, and even on their owners clothes and shoes.

Alongside their vaccinations, remember to treat your rabbits regularly for fleas as these can carry harmful diseases.

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Importance Of Vaccines For Infant And Toddlers

For newborns, breast milk can help protect against many diseases. However, this immunity wears off after breastfeeding is over, and some children arent breastfed at all.

Whether or not children are breastfed, vaccines can help protect them from disease. Vaccines can also help prevent the spread of disease through the rest of the population through herd immunity.

Vaccines work by imitating infection of a certain disease in your childs body. This prompts your childs immune system to develop weapons called antibodies.

These antibodies fight the disease that the vaccine is meant to prevent. With their body now primed to make antibodies, your childs immune system can defeat future infection from the disease. Its an amazing feat.

Why Do Babies Need So Many Vaccines

What to expect when your child is vaccinated | How Vaccines Work

Dr. Maulin Soneji explores common vaccines recommended for infants between birth and 15 months and how these immunizations and will protect infants in the real world.

As a new parent, it may be overwhelming to face the many steps involved in taking care of a new babys health. One of those steps is infant immunizations. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, vaccinations are necessary for preventing infants from developing a severe illness, pain, disability, or even death from an infectious disease.

Maulin Soneji, MD, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital, says with early-in-life vaccinations, physicians are trying to prevent illnesses such as meningitis, pneumonia, tetanus, and whooping cough, to name a few. Infants are most at risk for these diseases within their first year of life.

“We know that an infant doesn’t have to be out and around a ton of people to contract these illnesses,” Soneji says. “It just takes the right exposure from a parent who unknowingly picked up the bacteria from work. We’ve seen infants, especially under six months of age, who were not vaccinated against these common illnesses or were only partially vaccinated they were hospitalized with very severe illness. There have even been cases of infant mortality from these preventable conditions.

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Keeping Your Childs Vaccination Record Up To Date

Ask the doctor or nurse to give you a written record and take this record with you whenever you take your child to a doctor, a clinic or hospital. An up-to-date vaccine record is especially important if you move to a new province or territory, as vaccine schedules are not the same everywhere. Your child may miss vaccine doses if your new doctor or clinic does not know exactly which vaccines they have already received.

You can also use the CANImmunize smartphone app. CANImmunize is a digital tool for Canadians that securely stores their vaccination records and helps them get vaccinated on time. The app also provides access to information and resources about vaccination from trusted Canadian health sources, so people can make informed vaccination decisions for themselves and their families.

Funded Vaccines For High Risk Groups

Publicly funded hepatitis A, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b, human papillomavirus, influenza, meningococcal, pertussis , pneumococcal, tuberculosis and varicella vaccines are available for children and adults at high risk of some diseases due to other medical conditions. For more details see the Additional Funded vaccines for special groups page of the Immunisation Handbook.

Meningococcal ACWY vaccine available to certain groups 1 December 2019

From 1 December 2019 the meningococcal ACWY vaccine is fully funded for individuals aged 13 to 25 years in close-living situations.

This means that one dose of meningococcal ACWY vaccine is funded for those aged 13 years to 24 years who:

  • are entering within the next three months, or are in their first year of living in boarding school hostels, tertiary education halls of residence, military barracks or prisons.

In addition, from 1 December 2019 to 30 November 2020 people already living in boarding school hostels, tertiary education halls of residence, military barracks or prisons will also have access to the vaccine.

It is important to note the ACWY vaccine does not provide protection against meningococcal B disease. As a result, it is important to consider meningococcal disease even in people who have been vaccinated if they present with symptoms consistent with meningococcal disease.

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If Your Child Can’t Be Vaccinated

Some children may not be able to get some vaccines, including those with:

  • specific medical conditions
  • severe allergic reactions to vaccine ingredients

Examples include children who need to take high-dose steroids or who have a weakened immune system from cancer treatment . These children may need to avoid vaccines that contain a weakened live virus, such as measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.

These children are at risk of getting the disease that the vaccine would have prevented.

Talk to your health care provider or local public health authority if you have any concerns about your child’s health status and vaccines.

If your child can’t be vaccinated, you can help protect them by encouraging others to get vaccinated. This will help prevent the spread of disease to your child.

Why Should I Vaccinate My Child

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Vaccines save lives. Measles vaccines alone are estimated to have prevented over 21 million deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Vaccines will help protect your child against diseases that can cause serious harm or death, especially in people with developing immune systems like infants.

Its important to vaccinate your child. If not, highly contagious diseases such as measles, diphtheria and polio, which were once wiped out in many countries, will come back.

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Are Some Babies Allergic To Vaccines

Very rarely, children can have an allergic reaction soon after immunisation. This reaction may be a rash or itching affecting part or all of the body. The doctor or nurse giving the vaccine will know how to treat this. It does not mean that your child should stop having immunisations.

Even more rarely, children can have a severe reaction, within a few minutes of the immunisation, which causes breathing difficulties and can cause the child to collapse. This is called an anaphylactic reaction. A recent study has shown that there is only 1 anaphylactic reaction in about a million immunisations.

An anaphylactic reaction is a severe and immediate allergic reaction that needs urgent medical attention.

The people who give immunisations are trained to deal with anaphylactic reactions and children recover completely with treatment.

Managing Fever After Immunisation

Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.

There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:

  • giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
  • although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if pain or fever is present, or baby is crying and unsettled paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist .

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What If A Family Member Or Friend Refuses To Get Vaccinated

When everyones vaccinations are up to date, parents can feel more secure about the safety of their child. But what if someone refuses?

Just as they would take the common courtesy to wash their hands and stay away if they are exhibiting any signs of an illness , anyone around your baby should also protect against life-threatening infections that could harm your infant.

I would suggest that parents take a strong stand if a family member is not willing to get vaccinated, Dr. Espinoza said. I would not let them near my children until my kids have been adequately vaccinated and are a bit older .

Vaccinations can be a hot-button topic, so try and approach this topic as early as possible before the arrival of baby. If everyone takes necessary precautions, the vast majority of serious infections for newborns can be prevented.

My Baby’s Poorly Should I Still Immunise

Mayo Clinic Minute: Why and when children should be vaccinated

If your baby just has a bit of a cold, it should be fine for them to have their immunisations as scheduled.

If they’re more under the weather, with a high temperature, it’s best to call your GP practice and check. They may decide to postpone the vaccination until your baby is feeling better.

If your child has any allergies , tell your GP. They’ll still be able to have their vaccinations, but a different type of vaccination may be required in some cases.

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What Happens After The Immunization

Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.

A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.

Premature Babies And Immunisations

Premature babies are at a higher risk of infection. Its important that they are immunised following the routine immunisation schedule starting from when theyre two months old, regardless of how early they were born. It could be possible that they start their immunisation when they are still at hospital but your doctor will be able to advise you on this .

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Do Vaccinations Have Any Side Effects

It is possible, as with any medication, that your rabbits may experience some side effects from their vaccinations. Side effects are usually very mild and can include:

  • Small increase in body temperature
  • Temporary swelling where the injection has been given .

Side effects should improve within 24-48 hours but you should always contact your vet if you have any worries or side effects are serious or dont go away after a short period.

Always contact your vet immediately if your rabbit stops eating they may be at risk of gut stasis .

Normal Reactions To Vaccines

What Aborted Fetuses Have to Do With Vaccines

These drugs are made using parts of the diseases they protect your child from, but they donât cause the disease itself. They tell your childâs body to make blood proteins called antibodies to fight off those diseases. For example, after a vaccine for whooping cough, if your child were to come into contact with the real illness, their body would recognize it and have the right tools to attack it.

Mild reactions after a vaccine show that itâs working. These symptoms are a sign that your childâs body is making new antibodies. Normally, these reactions go away on their own within a few days. The most common effects you might see include:

  • Tenderness or redness at the shot site
  • Slight swelling at the shot site
  • Fussiness

These are also normal side effects that should go away without any kind of treatment.

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Individual Requests For Bcg Vaccination

If you want BCG vaccination for yourself or your child, you’ll be assessed to see if you’re at high risk of catching TB.

If you’re not at risk, you will not be eligible for BCG vaccination.

If you’re at risk, you’ll have a tuberculin skin test. If this is negative, you’ll be offered BCG vaccination according to local arrangements.

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