Saturday, September 23, 2023

When Do Babies Need Vaccines

What Side Effects Might A Baby Or Young Child Experience After Covid

Can Babies’ Immune Systems Handle so Many Vaccines? | Fact Check: FAQs on Kids Vaccines

Side effects for both the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna shots have been shown to be similar to the types of mild, short-lived side effects your infant, toddler or young child might experience from other immunizations. Fever and soreness at the injection site were most common babies and toddlers under 3 years may also be sleepy, irritable or have less of an appetite, while children 3 to 5 years might feel low energy, have a headache or experience flu-like symptoms.

These side effects can be a little inconvenient crabby babies and toddlers aren’t fun. But experts agree that protection against COVID-19 is worth a day or two of discomfort.

“The problem with COVID is that we just don’t know who will get really sick and who will not get sick at all,” Dr. Posner says. “I would prefer my child get mild side effects from a vaccine and hopefully get decent protection from severe illness versus taking the chance.”

Wondering about the shots’ impact on bigger kids? As with adults, the most common side effects in adolescents and older children are a sore arm, fatigue, headache, chills, fever and muscle and joint pain, particularly after the second dose, the FDA notes. Side effects dont seem to be stronger or more prevalent in kids, and many havent had side effects at all.

Why Do Children Get So Many Vaccinations

A number of vaccinations are required in the first few years of a childs life to protect them against some of the most serious childhood infectious diseases. The immune system in young children does not work as well as the immune system in older children and adults, because it is still immature. Therefore, more doses of the vaccine are needed.

Another reason children get many vaccinations is that new vaccines against serious infections continue to be developed. The number of injections is reduced by the use of combination vaccines, where several vaccines are combined into one injection.

For a full list of recommended vaccinations for children, visit the general National Immunisation Program schedule or the National Immunisation Program schedule for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Children Aged Between 1 And 16 Years Who Should Have The Bcg Vaccine

BCG vaccination is recommended for all older children and adults at risk of TB, including:

  • children with an increased risk of TB who were not vaccinated against TB when they were babies
  • anyone under 16 who has come from an area of the world where TB is high
  • anyone under 16 who lives with or is a close contact of someone with infectious TB

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Adults Aged 16 To 35 Who Should Have The Bcg Vaccine

BCG vaccination is recommended for people aged 16 to 35 who are at occupational risk of TB exposure, including:

  • healthcare workers or laboratory workers who have either direct contact with patients with TB or with potentially infectious clinical samples and materials
  • veterinary staff and other animal workers, such as abattoir workers, who handle animals or animal materials that could be infected with TB

The BCG vaccine is also sometimes offered to:

  • prison staff who work directly with prisoners
  • staff of hostels for homeless people
  • staff who work in facilities for refugees and asylum seekers

What Changes Have Been Made To The Child Immunization Schedule In 2022

Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?

For 2022, the childhood immunization schedule has been updated to include dengue vaccination recommendations for children living in areas with high rates of dengue fever who have previously caught it. The schedule was also updated to include the latest recommendations for the MMR, Varicella and Hib vaccines. In addition, information about special situations was added for the Hep B, HPV and MenACWY vaccines. If you have specific questions about 2022 schedule updates and how they relate to your kids vaccination schedule, talk with your childs doctor.

The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meets three times a year to review the latest scientific research and make any necessary changes to the child vaccination schedule. The CDC officially sets the schedule based on ACIPs recommendations, and the schedule is also approved by organizations like the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Association of Family Physicians .

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When Should Your Baby Be Immunised

It is important that your baby has their immunisations at the right age the first ones are given at 8 weeks old. They will be given further doses of these immunisations when they are 12 weeks old and 16 weeks old. Other immunisations are given at 1 year of age. Other immunisations are given later, see the table below for the immunisation schedule.

What Is In The Polio Vaccine

There are two polio vaccines: inactivated poliovirus vaccine , which is administered as a shot, and the oral poliovirus vaccine , which is taken by the mouth. The oral version contains the live poliovirus, while the shot, administered in the leg or arm, has various non-living parts of the virus in it. The U.S. has only been using the shot version of the vaccine since 2000 when it was clear that polio was eliminated and there was no longer a need for two vaccines, Esper says. But other countries still widely use the oral version.

Both are extremely effective, but in extremely rare cases, the oral pill can cause polio when the virus mutates. The shot, which was developed later, does not have this ability.

The best way to protect children, yourself, and keep the United States polio-free is maintaining high immunity in the population against polio through vaccination, Cruz says. Vaccination against polio practically eliminated the disease in the United States, showing that the vaccine is safe and effective.

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What Are Vaccinations And Why Does Your Baby Need Them

Vaccines give you immunity to certain diseases. If you have immunity against a disease, you have protection against that disease.

You may wonder why your baby needs vaccinations for diseases that youve never heard of. You may not know anyone whos ever had a disease like polio or diphtheria. Many diseases that vaccinations help prevent once infected and killed many children in this country. Because of vaccinations, most people in this country dont get these diseases anymore. Vaccinations help protect your baby from diseases and help prevent spreading diseases to others.

Side Effects After Immunisation

Why Do Babies Get So Many Vaccines?

Immunisations are effective and safe, although all medication can have unwanted side effects. Some children may experience a reaction to a vaccine. In virtually all cases, immunisation side effects are not as serious as the symptoms a child would experience if they were to contract the disease.

The mild side effects can include a mild fever and pain at the injection site. For specific information about side effects from different doses of vaccine, ask your doctor or healthcare professional.

The meningococcal B vaccine, Bexsero, commonly causes a fever in children aged less than 2 years. Paracetamol must be given in the 30 minutes before vaccination or as soon as practicable after vaccination for children less than 2 years. This should be followed by 2 more doses given 6 hours apart regardless of whether the child has a fever.

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When Should My Child Get Immunized

Your child should receive their first doses of most vaccines during their first two years of life. They may need several doses of the vaccines to reach full protection. For example, the CDC recommends children receive their first dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age or older. They should then receive a second dose before entering elementary school . Your baby can get their childhood vaccines at their regularly scheduled well-baby checkups.

Why Do Babies Need So Many Vaccines

As a new parent, it may be overwhelming to face the many steps involved in taking care of a new babys health. One of those steps is infant immunizations. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, vaccinations are necessary for preventing infants from developing a severe illness, pain, disability, or even death from an infectious disease.

Maulin Soneji, MD, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital, says with early-in-life vaccinations, physicians are trying to prevent illnesses such as meningitis, pneumonia, tetanus, and whooping cough, to name a few. Infants are most at risk for these diseases within their first year of life.

“We know that an infant doesn’t have to be out and around a ton of people to contract these illnesses,” Soneji says. “It just takes the right exposure from a parent who unknowingly picked up the bacteria from work. We’ve seen infants, especially under six months of age, who were not vaccinated against these common illnesses or were only partially vaccinated they were hospitalized with very severe illness. There have even been cases of infant mortality from these preventable conditions.

Below, Soneji explores common vaccines recommended for infants between birth and 15 months and how these immunizations and their booster vaccines will protect infants in the real world.

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How Are Vaccines Approved

Vaccines must go through years of research, followed by testing and retesting before they can be used in Canada. Several systems are in place to monitor the creation, the use, and the safety of vaccines. Each vaccine MUST be proven to be safe and to work before it can be given. Vaccine reactions are reported by healthcare providers to local public health authorities to make sure unusual or unexpected reactions can be dealt with quickly.

Watch our vaccine safety video @

Your Child’s Vaccination Schedule

Your child

Vaccination schedules are carefully studied and designed to give the best possible protection for children against serious diseases.

Canadians should consult with their health care provider or public health authority to determine when they should visit, and learn about the measures that have been put in place to safely deliver immunization services during COVID-19.

Vaccination schedules can vary slightly, depending on the province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will vaccinate at a different age.

Typically, your child will be vaccinated:

  • between birth to 2 months
  • at 4 months
  • between 12 months and 18 months
  • between 4 to 6 years of age

For some of the vaccines, your child will require more than 1 dose at different times. This is needed because for some vaccines, the first dose does not provide as much immunity as possible.

More than 1 dose is needed to build more complete immunity. The DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type B, is an example.

In other cases, the initial series of shots that children receive as part of their infant immunizations helps them build immunity. After a while, however, that immunity begins to wear off.

At this point, a “booster” dose is needed to bring immunity levels back up. The MMR vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps and rubella, is a good example.

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Immunisation And Young Children

In the first months of life, a baby might have some protection from infectious diseases that their mother has had or been immunised against. This is known as passive immunity. It occurs when antibodies are transferred from mother to baby during pregnancy. The level of antibody protection for the baby can be low and wears off quickly. This puts them at risk of diseases that can be prevented with vaccination.

Most childhood immunisations are given as an injection in the arm or leg, except rotavirus vaccine, which is given by mouth. A vaccination dose may contain a vaccine against one specific disease, or several diseases. This is known as a combination injection, and it helps to reduce the number of injections your child needs.

Recommended Immunizations For Teens Ages 16 To 18 Years Old

Between the ages of 16 and 18, there is one regularly recommended immunization and one immunization that may be recommended under certain circumstances.

An overview of immunizations for teens ages 16 to 18 years old

  • MenACWY The second and final meningococcal vaccine shot is recommended at 16 years old.
  • MenB The meningococcal B vaccine is recommended under specific circumstances, specifically if a college or university requires students to have this vaccination, or if a bacterial meningitis outbreak has occurred. The vaccine is given in two doses between the ages of 16 and 18. Once the first dose is given, the timing of the second dose is dependent on the manufacturer of the vaccine.

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Keep A Record Of Immunizations

It is important that you keep track of your child’s immunizations. The use of the Lifetime Health Record is one way of keeping a record. Your doctor should be reporting all vaccines given to the Citywide Immunization Registry . It’s important to bring your child’s immunization record with you every time you take your child to the doctor or clinic. That’s how you and the doctor will know exactly which immunizations your child has had and how many more your child will need.

How Do I Keep Track Of My Child’s Vaccination

How do vaccines help babies fight infections? | How Vaccines Work

You will be given a vaccination record with your child’s recommended schedule at your first clinic visit. If your healthcare provider forgets, be sure to ask for one. It is important to bring this record with you every time you visit a healthcare provider. This is to make sure that it can be updated each time your child receives a vaccine.

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Why Should I Vaccinate My Child At Such A Young Age

The vaccination schedule is designed to protect your child before they are exposed to vaccine-preventable diseases. Children are vaccinated early in life because they are vulnerable to diseases and the consequences can be very serious. But if vaccinated on time, your child has the most protection as early as possible.

How Does Immunisation Work

Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.

Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.

It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.

Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.

Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.

Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.

In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:

The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .

Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.

Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.

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How Many Vaccines Do Children Get

By the age of 15 months, your baby may receive up to 10 different types of vaccines. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all healthy babies receive these initial vaccines. Your child may receive additional doses and other vaccines between the ages of 15 months and 16 years old. If your child has a chronic condition or a weakened immune system, their pediatrician may recommend a different schedule.

Preparing For Your Child’s Immunisation


When you take your child for each vaccination, it important to take your child’s My Health and Development Record or your child’s health record booklet, so that the doctor, nurse or health worker can record your child’s visit. These records are an important reminder of when your child’s next immunisations are due and which children in the family are immunised.

There is also the option of setting up an eHealth record for your child and downloading the My Child’s eHealth Record app.

Before the immunisation, you need to tell the doctor or nurse if your child:

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Whats The Difference Between Immunization And Vaccination

The words immunization and vaccination are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings. One term describes the specific action, and the other describes the process. According to the CDC, vaccination is the act of introducing a vaccine to give you immunity to a specific disease. The definition of immunization is the process by which vaccination protects you from a disease.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

The sight of your baby getting a shot may make you cry along with them. But getting your child vaccinated according to the childhood immunization schedule is the best way to protect them against many different infections and diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Protection and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend following a specific immunization schedule. However, talk to your childs pediatrician to find out what works best for your child.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/14/2022.


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