Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required
CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.
Why Get Immunised Against Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease is a very serious infection that can cause severe scarring, loss of limbs, brain damage and death.
Vaccination is a safe and effective way to protect yourself from meningococcal disease.
Meningococcal disease is most commonly caused by types A, B, C, W and Y. Vaccines can protect against all these types, but different vaccines protect against different types. No single vaccine protects against all types.
How To Get The Menb Vaccine
Your GP surgery or clinic will send you an appointment for your baby to have their MenB vaccination along with their other routine vaccinations.
Most surgeries and health centres run special immunisation or baby clinics.
If you cannot get to the clinic, contact the surgery to make another appointment.
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Am I At Risk Of Meningitis
Some elements of teen and student life increase risk of transmission. Meningitis isn’t actually that easy to catch but activities that put you at risk include kissing, coughing or sneezing on someone in close proximity – such as at a gig, festival or club – drinking from the same bottle or glass, or sharing cigarettes.
If you’re at university, you’re also mixing, maybe even living, with people from all over the country and the world, exposing your immune system to bugs it hasn’t met before – this increases your risk of succumbing to them. This is why doctors particularly want teens and young adults protected against the risk of meningitis.
Available Vaccines And Vaccination Campaigns
Five serogroupsgroups of bacteria that contain a common antigen that can generate an immune responseare collectively responsible for nearly all invasive meningococcal disease: groups A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Four of these are covered by quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines used in the United States.
There are two main types of meningococcal vaccines. A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been available since the 1970s. However, like the polysaccharide vaccine against pneumococcal disease, it is most effective in adults and does not consistently generate immunity in young children.
The first conjugate meningococcal vaccine in the United States, MCV4 , was licensed in 2005, with a second, MenACWY-CRM , licensed in 2010. These are the preferred vaccines for individuals between two years and 55 years of age Menactra is approved for ages two to 55, and Menveo for ages 11 to 55.
Vaccines for group B meningococcal disease were licensed in the United States in 2014 and 2015. MenB-FHbp is a two-dose vaccine.
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You Got Meningitis Vaccination As A Child
You might have had a meningococcal group C vaccination as a child, however, due to an increase in type W across the UK you are now recommended to have the MenACWY vaccine.
This will boost your protection against Men C and also protect you against the types A, W and Y. It wont protect you against all the types of meningococcal disease which is why it is also important to know the signs and symptoms.
What Are The Possible Reactions After The Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get meningococcal disease.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Headache, muscle soreness, chills, fever, and nausea may also occur after getting the vaccine. These reactions are mild and generally last 1 to 2 days.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
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Rare Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
There is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation in case further treatment is required.
If any other reactions are severe and persistent, or if you are worried, contact your doctor for further information.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
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Students Under 22 Years Of Age Who Will Take Any Face
Documentation must be submitted at least 10 days prior to the student’s first in-person class.
Effective Jan. 1, 2014, state law requires students who will be under age 22 on their first day of class at a public, private or independent institution of higher education in Texas to provide proof of immunization for bacterial meningitis. The vaccination or booster dose must have been received during the five years prior to enrollment and at least ten days before the start of classes.
Students who have been previously enrolled at Texas State and are enrolling following a break in enrollment of at least one fall or spring semester will be subject to the vaccination requirement. Students transferring from another institution of higher education will also be subject to the vaccination requirement.
Texas State requires you to meet this requirement before you will be allowed to register for classes.
Do You Need The Meningitis Acwy Vaccine
If you have not had this vaccination before or you require it before travelling, you can get it through your pharmacist or GP. You will have a consultation and one dose of vaccine . This is a private from both pharmacist and GP and is not available on the NHS for travellers unless you are 14-24 years old.
You should be immunised at least two weeks before you travel if you need this vaccination. If you are under 25 and havent been vaccinated, it is important to do so before starting university because the risk of infection for some strains is highest in first year university students.
Find out if you’ve been vaccinated
Research your meningitis risk
Have a consultation with your pharmacist
Receive your injection
Be aware of the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
- This vaccine is provided free to infants as part of their routine immunizations. The vaccine is given as a series of two doses. The first is given at 2 months of age, and the second at 12 months.
- This vaccine is also free for people:
- Born before 2002, who are 24 years of age and under who did not get a dose of vaccine on or after their 10th birthday.
- Who have been in close contact with someone with meningococcal type C disease.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Immunisation
All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Most of the time they are not serious.
For most people, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.
Talk to your doctor about the possible side effects of meningococcal vaccines, or if you or your child have symptoms that worry you after having a meningococcal vaccine.
Common side effects of meningococcal vaccines include:
- pain, redness and swelling where the needle went in
- feeling unsettled or tired
See the Vaccinate to protect your baby against meningococcal B brochure for information on how to manage fever following meningococcal B vaccination in under 2 year olds.
The Consumer Medicine Information links in How do you get immunised against meningococcal disease? lists the side effects of each vaccine.
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Effectiveness Of The Menb Vaccine
Another type of meningococcal vaccine is the MenB vaccine, which protects against a fifth strain of Neisseria meningitidis. In the U.S., parents can opt to give their children a MenB vaccine once theyre in their teens.
The CDC’s analysis of the efficacy of the MenB vaccines in the real world comes from studies done in other countries. In Canada, a study followed a mass vaccination campaign in a region with a meningitis B outbreak and found that a MenB vaccine was 79% effective in the four years after vaccination.
In the UK, MenB vaccines have become part of the childhood immunization schedule. By 2018 as many as 92% of eligible infants in the UK completed a MenB vaccination by their first birthday, according to a 2020 study in The New England Journal of Medicine.
That study estimated that the vaccine was about 53% effective. This policy has also resulted in a large drop in meningitis B cases. The study noted a 75% drop in cases among vaccine-eligible age groups, compared to the expected numbers.
If This Is A Brand New Vaccine How Do We Know Its Safe
Before they’re allowed to be used, all vaccines are carefully tested for safety and effectiveness. They’ve been through up to 10 years of trials in the laboratory and among volunteers.
The UK is the first country to introduce the MenB vaccine into its routine immunisation schedule for children. The vaccine is already offered to children in the UK with certain medical conditions and has also been used to contain outbreaks of MenB disease, where it proved to be both safe and effective. Over 1 million doses have already been given in 19 countries worldwide.
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines
All children ages 11 through 12 years should receive meningococcal vaccine followed by a booster dose at age 16 years. Vaccination is also recommended for all adolescents ages 13 through 18 years who did not receive a dose at age 11-12 years.
Individuals ages 2 months and older who have certain conditions that weaken their immune system should receive meningococcal vaccine, including teens who are HIV positive. These persons should also receive booster shots every three to five years depending on their age. Talk to your health care provider if your preteen or teen has a condition that makes it harder for their body to fight off infection.
The MenB vaccine may also be given at age 16 years along with the MenACWY booster dose. MenB vaccine is also recommended for children age 10 years and older with certain high-risk conditions. The number of doses needed depends on the product used and if your child has a high-risk condition. Talk to your health care provider about this additional vaccine.
Where And When Can I Get The Vaccine
Talk to your doctor or local public health clinic to find out where and when your child should get vaccinated.
- The cost of Men-C-C is covered everywhere in Canada.
- Many provinces currently cover the cost of MCV-4 vaccine.
- Currently, no provinces or territories cover the cost of Men-B vaccine for all children. Some provide it for children at high risk of getting meningococcal disease.
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Acwy Vaccination Is Free For Some People
In Victoria, immunisation against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y is available for free as part of the National Immunisation Program schedule for:
- children aged 12 months
- children from 13 months to under 20 years of age, who did not have their meningococcal C vaccine at 12 months
- young people in Year 10 of secondary school
- young people not in secondary school, aged 15 to 19 years.
Young people in the 15 to 19 years age group are more likely to spread the disease to others. One in five people in this age group carry the bacteria that cause meningococcal disease. Immunisation experts have advised that immunising this age group can prevent spread to other age groups and protect the wider community.
Eligible young people who are away from school on the day the vaccine was given, or who do not attend secondary school, can attend either a local government community immunisation session, or a general practitioner to receive the free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. The GP may charge a consultation fee.
Contact your local government to find out when and where immunisation sessions are held.
- People with specified medical risk conditions can also receive free meningococcal ACWY vaccine. This includes people with:
- a poorly functioning spleen or no spleen, including sickle cell disease or other haemoglobinopathies
- defects in, or a deficiency of, a complement component, including factor H, factor D or properdin deficiency
- current or future treatment with eculizumab .
Submitting Proof Of Vaccination
Do not submit your vaccination proof to Undergraduate Admissions or the Student Health Center.
Texas State uses Magnus Health SMR for managing compliance with the meningitis vaccination requirement. New students planning to enroll at Texas State must submit proof of meningitis vaccination directly to Magnus Health SMR. Students subject to the bacterial meningitis requirement will receive an email from Magnus Health SMR with instructions. Students will be charged $10 by Magnus Health SMR for processing the documents and verifying compliance with the vaccination requirement. Acceptable evidence of vaccination may include any of the following:
- An official immunization record from a government health authority .
- An official immunization record received from school officials, including a record from another state .
- Students using a pharmacy should download and provide the pharmacist with the generic immunization form available on the Magnus website, once they have paid their processing fee, to ensure they receive an approvable document from the pharmacist . H-E-B customers should request their Vaccine Administration Consent Form for submission to Magnus.
- All records must be in English to be approved.
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Do I Need To Pay For Meningococcal Immunisation
Vaccines covered by the NIP are free for people who are eligible. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or people in your family are eligible to receive.
Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can check this when you make your appointment.
Children and adolescents not eligible for meningococcal vaccines through the NIP, may be able to receive free vaccines through state-funded programs. Contact your state or territory health department for details.
If you are not eligible for free vaccines, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your immunisation provider can give you more information.
Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctor is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child. These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, vaccines for children and teens are regularly available at
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have these vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Vaccines may also be available at
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local vaccine registry, if available. This helps providers at future visits know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
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There Are Three Types Of Meningococcal Vaccines:
- The meningococcal C vaccine that protects against infection from one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type C.
- The meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine that protects against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria: types A, C, Y and W-135.
- The meningococcal B vaccine that protects against infection by one of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria, type B.
The type of vaccine recommended depends on a person’s age and risk factors.