Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Before a vaccine became available for it, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Hib is much less common today due to vaccinations.
Doctors usually administer the Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. They will administer it again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.
The dosing regimen depends on the brand of vaccine an infant receives.
Doctors will give this vaccine either alone or as part of a combination vaccine.
How Is This Vaccine Given
This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle.
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended if:
you’ve been exposed to an outbreak of meningococcal disease
you are in the military
you work in a laboratory and are exposed to meningococcal bacteria
you live in a dormitory or other group housing
you live in or travel to an area where meningococcal disease is common
you have a medical problem affecting your spleen, or your spleen has been removed
you use a medicine called eculizumab or ravulizumab or
you have an immune system disorder called “complement component deficiency.”
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is usually given only once to adults and children 2 years and older. You may need a booster dose if you have a high risk of meningococcal infection and it has been at least 4 years since you last received this vaccine. Younger children will need to receive 2 to 4 doses.
The Centers for Disease Control recommends that all teens ages 11 to 12 years be vaccinated with a single dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine. A booster dose should be given at age 16 for continued protection when teens are at highest risk of meningococcal disease.
Your booster schedule may be different. Follow the guidelines provided by your doctor or local health department.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
All Infants Children And Adults
Any person from 6 weeks of age who wants to protect themselves against meningococcal disease is recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine and MenB vaccine
Any person who wants to protect themselves against invasive meningococcal disease can receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines from as early as 6 weeks of age.
A summary of the recommendations for use of meningococcal vaccines is shown in Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines by age group. The table shows the type of vaccines that are strongly recommended for specific age groups and special risk groups. See below for brand and dosing recommendations.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands . Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years who wish to receive a MenB vaccine. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Recommended dose schedules
For recommended dose schedules for healthy people aged 2 years who wish to receive meningococcal vaccine, see Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for healthy people aged 2 years, by age and vaccine brand.
For the recommended dose schedules for healthy infants and children aged < 2 years, see:
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
Recommended Immunization Schedules For Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years United States 2012
Please note: An erratum has been published for this article. To view the erratum, please clickhere.
Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices publishes immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years. These schedules summarize recommendations for currently licensed vaccines for children aged 0 through 6 years and 7 through 18 years and include recommendations in effect as of December 23, 2011.
Vaccination providers are being advised to use all three schedules and their respective footnotes together and not separately.
A parent-friendly schedule for children and adolescents is available online at .
Changes to the previous schedules include the following:
The recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years and the catch-up immunization schedule for 2012 are approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 018 yearsUnited States, 2012. MMWR 2012 61.
FIGURE 1. Recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 6 years United States, 2012
1. Hepatitis B vaccine.
Doses after the birth dose:
2. Rotavirus vaccines.
3. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine.
5. Pneumococcal vaccines.
7. Influenza vaccines.
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What Kind Of Vaccines Are They
The MPSV4 vaccine is made from the outer polysaccharide capsule of the meningococcal bacteria. The meningococcal conjugate vaccines are made by conjugating the capsular polysaccharide antigens individually to diphtheria toxoid protein. Both the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines protect against serotypes A, C, Y and W-135 and do not contain live bacteria.
Tetanus And Diphtheria Vaccine
Td is a two-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus and diphtheria. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization strongly recommends that all Canadians receive a primary immunizing course of tetanus toxoid in childhood followed by routine booster doses every 10 years.
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced one lifetime dose of the pertussis vaccine for adults to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario. All adults 19 to 64 years of age, who have never received the Tdap vaccine in adolescence, are now eligible to receive one lifetime dose of the vaccine. This lifetime dose replaces one of the Td booster doses given every 10 years.
Parents, grandparents or other adult household contacts of newborns, infants and young children as well as health care workers are considered a priority to receive the Tdap vaccine.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
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How Soon After Their First Dose Should People Who Remain At Risk For Meningococcal Disease Be Vaccinated Again
The interval between doses depends on the age at which they received their first dose. Children who received their previous dose before their seventh birthday should get vaccinated with a minimum interval of 3 years. Children who received their previous dose at or after age 7 years and all adults should get vaccinated with a minimum of 5 years between doses.
How Is Meningococcal Disease Spread And Who Is Most At Risk
Meningococcal disease is not as contagious as other illnesses, such as a cold or the flu. But it is spread by contact with infected respiratory and throat secretions. That can happen with coughing, kissing, or sneezing.
Because the risk increases with close or prolonged contact with an infected person, family members in the same household and caregivers are at an increased risk. For the same reason, so are college students who live in dormitories.
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Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
Commonly Asked Questions About The Meningococcal Vaccine
When are meningococcal vaccines typically given? There are two types of meningococcal vaccine:MenACWY and MenB. MenACWY should be given to teens and pre-teens a booster dose should be given 4-5 years after the initial vaccine. MenB vaccines may be given to older teens between 16 and 18. The vaccine is typically administered in 2 doses.
For children younger than 10 and adults, MenACWY is only recommended for patients with certain risk factors. Likewise, MenB may be administered to children over 10 and adults who are at higher risk for certain types of meningitis.
Can meningococcal vaccines cause fever or illness?Yes,a small percentage of patients experience side effects including fatigue, fever, nausea, or diarrhea after a vaccine. Then MenB vaccine is more likely to cause side effects than MenACWY, though either could generate a reaction. These symptoms normally disappear 3-5 days after the vaccine was administered. If symptoms persist outside of this timeframe, patients may need to seek follow-up care to test for more serious complications.
Can meningococcal vaccines cause allergic reactions?Pre-filled syringesmay contain latex, so patients with a sensitivity should discuss inoculation alternatives with their doctor. Anyone who has experienced an allergic reaction after a vaccine should speak to their doctor about safety concerns before they receive further shots.
- Medical costs covering complications
- Legal fees
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Is It Possible To Get The Vaccine And Still Get Meningitis
Because the vaccines do not protect against all causes of meningitis, it is still possible that someone could receive the vaccine and still get meningitis from a different strain not protected by the vaccine. But the risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis is significantly lower after the vaccine.
There are other causes of meningitis that are preventable. Vaccines like the Hib vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are also very effective at protecting against other causes of meningitis and should be included as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule. Check with your doctor and your children’s doctor to make sure that you and your family are protected against meningitis, as well as other serious illnesses.
Complications Of Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal infections can progress rapidly to serious disease or death in previously healthy people. The overall mortality risk for IMD is high , even if the person receives appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Around one-third of children and adolescents who survive IMD develop permanent sequelae. These can include:84
- limb deformity
- neurologic deficits
Around 3040% of people who survive IMD have long-term consequences or disabilities. Patients and caregivers can also have psychological symptoms due to these sequelae.92-94
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Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines
Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.
Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.
If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.
Nature Of The Disease
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterium is commonly known as meningococcus.
There are 13 known meningococcal serogroups, distinguished by differences in surface polysaccharides of the bacteriums outer membrane capsule. Globally, serogroups A, B, C, W-135 and Y most commonly cause disease.
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Should College Students Be Vaccinated Against Meningococcal Disease
College freshmen, especially those living in dormitories, are at an increased risk of meningococcal disease relative to other people their age. The MCV4 vaccine is recommended for persons 19-21 years old if they are entering college or are in a college or university setting. Some schools now require incoming freshmen and others to be vaccinated. The vaccine may be available from the college health service. Although the risk for meningococcal disease among non-freshmen college students is similar to that of the general population of the same age, there is no medical reason that other students who wish to decrease their risk of meningococcal disease cannot receive the vaccine.
Meningococcal Disease: What You Need To Know
What is meningococcal disease?
Meningococcal disease is a very serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. It is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children ages 2 through 18 in the United States. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
High fever, headache, vomiting, stiff neck and a rash are common symptoms of meningococcal disease. Among those who develop meningococcal disease, 10 to 15 percent die, despite treatment with antibiotics. Permanent brain damage, hearing loss, kidney failure, loss of arms or legs, or chronic nervous system problems can occur in those who survive.
Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is most common in infants less than one year of age and people with certain medical conditions, such as the lack of a spleen. Teenagers aged 15 to 19 and college freshmen who live in dormitories have a higher risk of getting meningococcal disease.
Fortunately, meningococcal disease is not as contagious as the common cold or the flu. The bacteria are spread by respiratory and throat secretions . The bacteria are not spread by casual contact or by simply breathing the air where a person with meningitis has been.
Who needs to be vaccinated?
The following people are at high-risk for meningococcal disease and should get vaccinated:
Who should NOT be vaccinated?
What you need to know about vaccine safety
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What Should Physicians Do
Parents and families should be informed of the risks of meningococcal disease, and the benefits and risks of immunization. All provinces presently fund immunization programs that use monovalent meningococcal C conjugate vaccines during infancy . MCV4 adds three sero-types to these programs. MCV4 can be offered to children older than two years of age previously immunized with a meningococcal C conjugate vaccine to reduce the risk of meningococcal infection due to other serogroups . MCV4 is currently covered by the Ministry of Health in some, but not all, provinces. Thus, parents should be aware that this booster vaccine may be an additional expense. The length of immunity is not known for either MCV4 or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines, and booster doses may be necessary in adulthood to achieve optimal protection.
What Is Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection that can infect the spinal cord and brain and cause meningitis, which can be fatal or lead to permanent and disabling medical problems.
Meningococcal disease spreads from person to person through small droplets of saliva expelled into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The bacteria is usually passed through close contact with an infected person, especially through kissing or sharing a drinking glass or eating utensil.
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. This vaccine helps your body develop immunity to meningitis, but will not treat an active infection you already have.
The Menactra brand of this vaccine is for use in children and adults between the ages of 9 months and 55 years old. Menveo is for children and adults between the ages of 2 months and 55 years old. MenQuadfi is for adults and children at least 2 years old.
Like any vaccine, meningococcal conjugate vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.