Saturday, September 30, 2023

When Should I Vaccinate My Calves

When To Call Your Healthcare Provider

Deworming Cattle in the Springtime

Serious reactions to vaccines are very rare. Call your healthcare provider or public health office if your child has unusual symptoms after vaccination.

Unusual symptoms may include:

  • a fever above 40°C
  • crying or fussing for more than 24 hours
  • worsening swelling where the needle went in and/or
  • unusual sleepiness.

You know your child best. If you notice anything that is not normal after a vaccination, check with your healthcare provider.

If People Hardly Ever Get These Diseases Why Does My Child Need To Be Vaccinated

Diseases that were once common in childhood are now rare in Canada because of vaccines. But they still exist. Even one case of measles can spread quickly when people are not vaccinated. You can still catch measles one hour after an infected person has left the same room. It is not easy to tell who is carrying the germ, or if your child has been exposed.

Many vaccine-preventable diseases have no treatment or cure. In some cases, children can die from complications of a disease.

The best protection is to keep vaccinating.

To better explain the importance of vaccination, here is an analogy: It’s just like when we started bailing out a boat that had a slow leak the boat was full of water . We have been bailing fast and hard, and now the boat is almost dry. If we stop bailing the water will continue to come in as there is still a leak .

The Importance Of Calf Vaccination

Calves need to consume around five percent of their body weight in colostrum within four-to-six hours of birth for the best health results. But even then, the antibodies they receive dont offer lifelong protection. Levels drop within days and only last a few months.

Come weaning time, calves will be particularly susceptible to illness. As they suffer stress caused by a new environment and changing diet, its imperative you have a health plan to ensure they can fight disease.

Vaccinating a calf develops active immunity, which means the animal can produce its own antibodies. It trains the calfs immune system to recognize disease-causing viruses, bacteria, and pathogens, to better respond when exposed to them in the real world.

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Vaccinations For Beef Cattle

Page published: September 19, 2011 | Page reviewed: November 17, 2020

Vaccinations are an important part of disease prevention in an animal health program. Vaccinations need to be combined with specific management practices for best control of some diseases. Before embarking on a vaccination program for your herd, contact your veterinarian, stock inspector or beef adviser for up-to-date advice. The following table provides details about key vaccines used in Queensland herds. When administering vaccines, always follow the manufacturers instructions. For more information on handling, administering and storing vaccines see Principles of using vaccines.

5-in-1 covers five clostridial diseases, namely pulpy kidney , black disease, tetanus, blackleg, and malignant oedema.

7-in-1 covers the same diseases as 5-in-1 plus Leptospira harjo and Leptospira pomona.

Immunizing Beef Calves: A Preconditioning Immunization Concept

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Infectious diseases cause sickness and death in calves, before or after they are born. Unborn and nursing calves are at high risk to fatal diseases during the time of year when a beef rancher is calving cows, moving and mixing these cows, and bringing in bulls to them. Newborn calves can have low immunity and be highly susceptible to many diseases. They are exposed to germs shed by stressed cows, calves and bulls in the cow herd.

If sickness and death occur in weanling calves, the source of disease must be determined. Is the disease the result of dormant infections, now breaking out and shedding, in improperly immunized calves previously exposed in the herd? Is it the result of incubating infections in improperly immunized calves recently exposed in commingled, stressed and shedding calf groups? By properly vaccinating the entire herd, including pregnant cows, calves, replacement heifers and bulls, outbreaks caused by both dormant and incubating infections can be prevented.

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What If We Missed A Shot

Life with young children can be very busy. You may not be able to make every vaccination appointment for your child. But it is important to get back on schedule.

You should book an appointment with your healthcare provider as soon as possible. They can help you figure out what vaccines your child has already had and which ones are needed.

Nebraska Bqa: Starting Newborn Calves Off Right

Calving season for many producers is near, which means it is time to develop a Herd Health Plan to start those newborn calves out on the right track, promoting good health. An appropriate Herd Health Plan/Protocol ensures that all cattle are raised in the best health.

A strong HHP begins with a yearly production calendar that includes cattle nutrition, reproduction management, vaccination schedules, and marketing all of which are critical to sustainable beef cattle production. Management practices can be better matched with cattle needs by looking at the annual production cycle month-by-month.

The University of NebraskaLincoln Animal Science Department has provided an example of a beef production calendar.

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Late In Pregnancy: Vaccines And Tests For Mom

Babies get their first vaccinations and preventive care before theyre even born. They get this protection through you.Tdap VaccineEvery woman should get the Tdap vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of every pregnancy. It doesnt matter if you had the vaccine as a child, had a booster as an adult, or if you got one with your last baby. Get it again. The Tdap vaccine protects you against three diseases: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis .Whooping cough is especially dangerous for babies. Most whooping cough deaths are in infants too young to get the vaccine themselves. When you get the vaccine during pregnancy, it has a two-fold effect:

  • Your immunity is boosted, reducing the chance that you catch the illness from another person and pass it on to your baby after birth.
  • It allows you to pass on antibodies through the placenta and breast milk, giving your baby short-term protection until their immune system develops enough to receive the first vaccination.


Flu Vaccine

JAMA Pediatrics Gonorrhea and Chlamydia TestGroup B Strep Test

Good Management Practices For Castration Dehorning And Branding

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In addition to vaccination of young calves, producers need to develop plans for good management practices for castration, dehorning, and branding . Beef Quality Assurance in a collaborative effort with veterinarians, animal scientists, cattle industry leaders, production managers, and producers have put forward a consensus opinion for achieving optimal outcomes. The following guidelines are not intended to be exclusive of any one specific technique over another, but are focused on the animal and are aimed to satisfy scientifically valid and feasible approaches to meeting cattle health and welfare.


Castration of beef cattle is performed to reduce inter-animal aggression and injuries, improve human safety, and avoid the risk of unwanted pregnancies in the herd. Where practical, cattle should be castrated before the age of three months, or at the first available handling opportunity beyond that age.

The use of method that promote the well-being and comfort of cattle should be encouraged. It is recommended that all animals not used for breeding purposes be castrated and allowed to heal before leaving the operation of origin. Consult your veterinarian for procedures/methods that are most appropriate for your herd.


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Glossary Of Conditions And Terms

Anaplasmosis. An often fatal infectious disease of cattle caused by a microscopic parasite of red blood cells, spread by ticks or horsefly bites or by reusing needles or instruments between animals. A vaccine is available in some states with a conditional USDA license, but unless the risk is high, a routine vaccination for anaplasmosis is not recommended.

Bacterin. A bacterial vaccine.

BRSV . A virus that can cause severe, acute respiratory disease, especially in young cattle.

BVD . A disease caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus , resulting in numerous problems, such as damage to the digestive and immune systems, pneumonia, abortions, calf deformities, and others. Incomplete vaccination programs, such as those omitting a needed booster vaccination, have led to BVD outbreaks in some herds.

Blackleg. A highly fatal disease of young cattle caused by one type of Clostridium bacteria. See Clostridial disease.

Brucellosis. An infection resulting in abortion in females and inflammation and damage to the testicles in males, caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus. Also known as Bangs disease. See Calfhood vaccination.

Calfhood vaccination . Vaccination against Brucella abortus for heifers between approximately 4 and 10 months old . Calfhood vaccination must be administered by a federally accredited veterinarian . Calfhood vaccination against Brucella abortus is not mandatory in most states.

PI3 . A virus that can cause respiratory disease.

Feline Herpes Virus And Feline Calicivirus

Vaccines for feline herpes virus and feline calicivirus are always combined, as these two viruses together are the main causes of upper respiratory tract infections in cats .

Affected cats typically show sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, eye discharge, and mouth ulcers. Clinical signs vary from mild to extremely severe, and occasionally other complications may develop including viral pneumonia. With FHV-1, even after the initial signs subside, most cats will remain permanently infected with the virus and some go on to develop recurrent eye infections or other signs.

The viruses are often transmitted by direct or close contact between cats , but they may also survive for short periods in the environment.

Both of these viruses are ubiquitous in cat populations, and because infection is so common, and can often be quite severe , vaccination is considered important for all cats. Although vaccination does not always prevent infection with these viruses, it will help greatly in reducing the severity of disease if a vaccinated cat does become infected.

See feline herpes virus and feline calicivirus

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Vaccinations For Different Animals In The Herd

Every cattle operation will have unique vaccination requirements based on individual herd goals, so the following guidelines for vaccinating cattle may not be applicable in all situations. The best use of these guidelines is as a starting point to develop an effective vaccination protocol with your herd-health veterinarian and/or Extension agent. When appropriate, ensure that products are safe for pregnant animals and for calves nursing pregnant cows. Properly store and administer vaccines according to label directions adhere to designated meat withdrawal times booster primary vaccinations when recommended and follow all Beef Quality Assurance guidelines.

When Should My Child Be Vaccinated

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Your child needs to be vaccinated at several stages in order to be fully protected. Some vaccines need to be given more than once to build up your child’s immune system.

Immunization schedules could be different depending in which province or territory you live in. This means that some provinces or territories will give the same vaccine at different ages. But don’t worry, your healthcare provider will give you a vaccination schedule that will tell you which vaccines are needed and at what age. Another way to find your child’s immunization schedule is to check where the schedule for each province and territory is listed.

Hereâs an example of a typical schedule to be fully protected, your child will be vaccinated starting at birth or age two months, then at four months, six months, between 12 months and 18 months-and also between ages four to six years. Additional vaccinations are needed for school age children.

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Why Do We Give Vaccines

Vaccines are given to mitigate risk. Vaccines provide added insurance for cattle producers to protect their herds from many different diseases. The factors that warrant vaccination are:

  • The likelihood of disease exposure is high, or the risk of unprotected exposure to a disease is high.
  • The vaccine is effective.
  • The cost of the vaccine is justified.

A Parent’s Guide To Vaccination

Vaccination is the best way to protect your child’s health

Parents are responsible for the well-being of their children, including protecting them from illness caused by diseases that are vaccine-preventable. Learn about vaccination and why it is important to your child’s health.

Parents agree that feeding and sleeping schedules are important to help keep children healthy. The same goes for childhood vaccinations. Vaccinating your children is the best way to keep them safe from many serious and potentially deadly diseases. You can help protect your children by getting them vaccinated on time and keeping their shots up to date.

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How Frequently Should My Cat Be Vaccinated

All kittens should receive their core vaccinations and any others that are agreed between you and your vet. The initial vaccine course is often started at 8-9 weeks of age, with a second injection 3-4 weeks later. It is now common also to recommend a third vaccination at 16-20 weeks of age to ensure the kitten is properly protected.

A first booster vaccination should be given 12 months later to ensure a good level of continuing protection. However, after that, the frequency of booster vaccinations may be only every 1-3 years depending on the vaccine, disease and risk of with the individual cat.

Cats that stay at a boarding cattery will generally require an annual vaccination as this is a higher risk situation.

How Do I Keep Track Of My Child’s Vaccination

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You will be given a vaccination record with your child’s recommended schedule at your first clinic visit. If your healthcare provider forgets, be sure to ask for one. It is important to bring this record with you every time you visit a healthcare provider. This is to make sure that it can be updated each time your child receives a vaccine.

You might find it helpful to use the checklist at the back of this guide, or download the CANImmunize mobile app to help you keep track of your family’s vaccinations.

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Vaccinating Calf By Calf As They Arrive Or As A Group

Speaking about whether to vaccinate calves on a calf-by-calf basis or as part of a group, Suzanne added:

I will always recommend vaccinating calves as a group, usually the vaccines such as Bovipast comes with 10 doses per bottle. So its better when you open a vaccine that you can use it on a batch of calves that is there and ready to go.

Also, by vaccinating in batches you are getting a level playing field of immunity. They are all starting from the same page and they are getting a uniform level of immunity.

It can be just easier for a farmer to manage, especially when it comes to applying a booster vaccine if necessary within a group.

To view episode three of The Calf Show series, click on the link below.

What If My Child Can’t Be Vaccinated

Some children cannot receive certain vaccines due to allergic reactions or other medical conditions. Because they can’t be vaccinated, they are at risk of getting diseases that the vaccine would have protected them from.

You can help protect your children by encouraging those around your child to be up to date with their vaccination. Diseases that may not seem serious to adults can be very harmful to vulnerable children.

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Vaccinating For Diseases That Are A Routine Threat

Vaccines are available for many disease conditions. However, many diseases are not a routine threat to most beef herds, and some vaccines are not sufficiently effective to justify their use. Therefore, only a few vaccines are included in a routine vaccination schedule. The glossary of conditions and terms at the end of this publication lists both routine and not-so-routine infectious diseases and vaccines for them.

Natural Immunity And Disease Prevention

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Vaccines help your immune system get ready to protect against a disease without making you sick.

You may become naturally immune after being exposed to a disease. However, the risks of severe complications or even death are much greater than the risks of a severe reaction after getting a vaccine.

For example, if your child gets meningitis naturally, they have a 1 in 10 chance of dying. Those that survive have a 1 in 5 chance of:

  • deafness
  • loss of limbs
  • brain damage

An infected person can also spread the disease to others in the community before they show symptoms. Groups at risk include:

  • older adults
  • those with underlying health conditions

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Vaccinate Pregnant Cows Replacement Heifers Bulls

Unborn and nursing calves are protected against diseases by immunizing pregnant cows and pregnant replacement heifers during the last trimester of pregnancy. A cow herd that calves year around is vaccinated routinely every 6 months. Bulls and replacement heifers are vaccinated before introduction into the herd.

These immunizations properly use noninfectious vaccines of various types: killed, subunit, inactivated toxins or intramuscular, temperature sensitive, modified live.

Stress at the time of calving reduces resistance to disease. Infectious microorganisms of bovine respiratory disease can break out of dormancy and be shed. However, the active immunity provided by regular vaccinations is expected to suppress shedding of disease agents from the calving cows to the nurturing calves of the current years calf crop. The active immunity also provides protection for the following years calf crop against abortion diseases.

Immunized cows provide passive immunity to calves through the colostrum . Calves are protected until 2 to 3 months of age against nursing calf diseases. Passive immunity is expected to minimize infection and shedding of disease agents and prevent development of sickness and death. Susceptible baby calves are those that do not receive an adequate amount of good-quality colostrum during the first 24 hours after birth.

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