Wednesday, September 27, 2023

When Was The First Hpv Vaccine Given

What Are The Different Types Of Hpv And What Do They Do

Who Should Be Getting the HPV Vaccine Now?

There are more than 100 different types of HPV, and around 40 that affect the genital area.

HPV is very common and can be caught through any kind of sexual contact with another person who already has it.

Most people will get an HPV infection at some point in their lives and their bodies will get rid of it naturally without treatment.

But some people infected with a high-risk type of HPV will not be able to clear it.

Over time, this can cause abnormal tissue growth as well as other changes, which can lead to cancer if not treated.

High-risk types of HPV are linked to different types of cancer, including:

Infection with other types of HPV may cause:

  • genital warts small growths or skin changes on or around the genital or anal area they’re the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the UK
  • skin warts and verrucas not on the genital area
  • warts on the voice box or vocal cords

Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

POTS is 4 times more common in females and has peak onset in adolescence. Given the number of girls vaccinated, a large number of diagnoses of POTS around the age HPV vaccine is given would be expected, regardless of any association with the vaccine.

In previous years, concerns regarding the safety of the HPV vaccine have been raised in the UK and other European countries, with some parents and pressure groups linking the vaccine to POTS. In June 2015, the JCVI carried out a routine review of HPV vaccine safety and concluded that it had no concerns about the safety of the HPV vaccine. The European Medicines Agency has also conducted an independent review and, in line with findings from the UKs MHRA, concluded that available evidence does not support that HPV vaccines cause complex regional pain syndrome or POTS.

HPV vaccine was temporarily suspended by the Japanese government in 2013 but as no causal link was found between the vaccine and the illnesses reported in Japan the suspension was lifted in 2020. No other health authorities have taken similar action, and the World Health Organization continues to endorse the HPV vaccine.

Various worldwide independent health bodies and authorities have also reviewed the safety of the HPV vaccine and all have concluded that the evidence does not support a link between HPV vaccine and the development of a range of chronic illnesses.

The Hpv Vaccine: Access And Use In The Us

The human papillomavirus vaccine is the first and only vaccination that helps protect individuals from getting many different types of cancer that are associated with different HPV strains. The vaccine protects young people against infection from certain strains of HPV, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Since HPV vaccines were first introduced in the U.S. in 2006 there have been changes in the range of protection they offer and the dosing regimen. The vaccines were originally recommended only for girls and young women and were subsequently broadened to include boys and young men. This factsheet discusses HPV and related cancers, use of the HPV vaccines for both females and males, and insurance coverage and access to the vaccines.

Read Also: When Do You Get Shingles Vaccine

Can Adults Get The Hpv Vaccine Here’s What To Knowand How To Decide If It’s Right For You

The vaccine is recommended for everyone up to 26 years oldbut what if you’ve aged out of that range?

The human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . While most cases will resolve on their own without causing health problems, others can linger, resulting in conditions like genital warts or certain types of cancerprimarily cervical cancer and anal cancer.

The good news: There’s a highly effective vaccine to prevent HPVand thus, the cancers associated with it. A new study published in the journal The Lancet in November 2021 proves as much: Researchers in the UK found that the first-generation HPV vaccine led to a “substantial reduction” in cervical cancer rates as well as incidences of precancerous findings, when given to girls and young women, specifically 1213 year olds. According to study authors, “the HPV has successfully almost eliminated cervical cancer in women born since 1, 1995.”

These findings are a big deal, and they may leave many adults wondering about their own vaccination statusnamely, if they never received the HPV vaccine as a child, are they still eligible to get vaccinated now? And would the vaccine provide any real protection? Here, we break down the current HPV recommendations, and what experts say about getting the HPV vaccine as an adult.

Administering The Hpv Vaccine At The Same Time As Other Vaccines

Men have higher rates of HPV than women, CDC says

Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are inactivated vaccines and will not be affected by, nor interfere with other inactivated or live vaccines given at the same time, or at any interval from each other.

If more than 1 vaccine is given at the same time, the vaccines should be given at separate sites, preferably in a different limb. If given in the same limb, they should be given at least 2.5cm apart. The site at which each vaccine was given should be noted in the individuals records.

You May Like: Which Vaccine Is Single Dose

How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given

The human papillomavirus vaccine is given as an injection into the upper arm: 2 doses are needed, with at least 6 months between them.

The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 years in Year 8 of school.

People who have the 1st dose of the HPV vaccine at 15 years of age or above will need to have 3 doses of the vaccine.

Girls and boys who became eligible for the HPV vaccine in Year 8, but missed having their doses at school, can get the vaccine up until their 25th birthday.

Talk to your school nurse, school immunisation team or GP surgery about getting vaccinated if you missed out and want to have it.

How Do Hpv Vaccines Work

Like other immunizations that guard against viral infection, HPV vaccines stimulate the body to produce antibodies that, in future encounters with HPV, bind to the virus and prevent it from infecting cells.

The current HPV vaccines are based on virus-like particles that are formed by HPV surface components. VLPs are not infectious because they lack the viruss DNA. However, they closely resemble the natural virus, and antibodies against the VLPs also have activity against the natural virus. The VLPs have been found to be strongly immunogenic, which means that they induce high levels of antibody production by the body. This makes the vaccines highly effective.

The vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases, nor do they treat existing HPV infections or HPV-caused disease.

Don’t Miss: How Many People Get Vaccinated In Us

How Many Doses Of Hpv Vaccine Are Needed

The HPV vaccine is given as a series of shots. ACIP specifies different dosing schedules, depending on the age when the vaccination series is started . Children who start the vaccine series before their 15th birthday need only two doses to be fully protected. People who start the series at age 15 or older and people who have certain conditions that weaken the immune system need three doses to be fully protected.

Researchers are currently investigating whether a single dose of HPV vaccine might be effective. See What research is being done on strategies to prevent HPV infection?

Hpv Vaccination For Transgender People

What is the year 8 HPV vaccine? | NHS

Trans women are eligible in the same way as MSM if their risk of getting HPV is similar to the risk of MSM who are eligible for the HPV vaccine.

Trans men are eligible if they have sex with other men and are aged 45 or under.

If trans men have previously completed a course of HPV vaccination as part of the girls’ HPV vaccine programme, no further doses are needed.

Also Check: What Vaccines Are Mandatory For School

Eligible Individuals With A History Of Receiving An Incomplete Course Of Hpv Vaccine

Where an individual in the eligible cohort presents with an incomplete vaccination history, every effort should be made to clarify what doses they have had and when they were administered.

The course should be completed according to a vaccination schedule of 0, 2 and 6 months or 0 and 6 to 24 months, depending on the age of the individual when the first dose was administered and whether 1 or 2 doses have already been given. If the course is interrupted, it should be resumed but not repeated.

Eligible individuals who commenced a 3 dose schedule before the age of 15 years and who received the first 2 doses of vaccine at least 6 months apart do not require a third dose and should be considered to have completed the full course.

Individuals who have received 2 doses less than 6 months apart should receive a third dose as 2 doses less than 6 months apart is not considered adequate to provide long term protection.

How Does The Hpv Vaccine Work

Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination programme since 2012.

Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year, the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.

Gardasil 9 protects against 9 types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Between them, types 16 and 18 are the cause of most cervical cancers in the UK . Types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 cause an additional 15% of cervical cancers.

These types of HPV also cause most anal cancers, and some genital and head and neck cancers.

HPV types 6 and 11 cause around 90% of genital warts, so using Gardasil 9 helps protect girls and boys against both cancer and genital warts.

HPV vaccination does not protect against other infections spread during sex, such as chlamydia, and it will not stop girls getting pregnant, so it’s still very important to practise safe sex.

You May Like: Why Do We Need Vaccines

Vaccination Of Specific Populations

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

HPV vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnancy because data on HPV vaccination in pregnancy are limited. HPV vaccine, however, has not been causally associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy or adverse events to the developing fetus. In the absence of data, it is recommended that initiation of the HPV vaccine series should be delayed until after completion of the pregnancy. If a woman is found to be pregnant after initiating the vaccination series, completion of the series should be delayed until after pregnancy. No intervention is required if vaccine has been administered during pregnancy.

Vaccine recipients and health care providers are encouraged to report any exposure to HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine during pregnancy to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-567-2594. Exposure to HPV2 vaccine during pregnancy should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-387-7374.

There are limited data on the effects on breastfed infants from HPV vaccination of their mothers however, there have been no reported adverse events thought to be vaccine-related. Therefore, HPV vaccine may be administered to breastfeeding women.

Refer to Immunization in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Immunocompromised persons

Refer to Immunization of Immunocompromised Persons in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are immunocompromised.

What Research Is Being Done On Strategies To Prevent Hpv Infection

Confused About Who Should Get the HPV Vaccine, and When ...

If a single dose of HPV vaccine were effective, that would be an important advance. A large observational study using national data from women across Australia found that one dose of HPV vaccine was as effective as two or three doses in preventing high-grade cervical lesions . An analysis of data from a community-based clinical trial of Cervarix in Costa Rica, found that even one dose of the vaccine caused the body to produce approximately nine times more antibodies against HPV than the body produces in response to a natural HPV infection, and those antibody levels persisted for 11 years . In addition, the rates of HPV infection remained low for at least 10 years .

Two NCI-led clinical trials have been launched in Costa Rica to confirm and extend these findings. The ESCUDDO study, a randomized double-blind controlled trial involving 20,000 girls ages 1216 years, is testing whether one dose of either Cervarix or Gardasil 9 is as effective as two doses at preventing persistent cervical infection with HPV. PRIMAVERA-ESCUDDO, a non-randomized open-label trial, will provide earlier and complementary results to ESCUDDO about the immunogenicity of one dose of Cervarix in girls ages 914 years compared with three doses of Gardasil in women ages 1825 years.

Selected References
  • Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347:16451651.

  • You May Like: What Vaccines Will My 2 Month Old Get

    Hpv Vaccine Given To Girls Drastically Reduces Risk Of Cervical Cancer Uk Study Finds

    Washington – More than a decade ago, Britain set out to vaccinate girls aged 12 and 13 against the human papillomavirus, or HPV, which can cause cervical cancer, among other ailments.

    Researchers have now observed that those shots led cases of cervical cancer to plummet among the cohort once they reached their 20s, when the risk of developing the disease is among the highest.

    A study published on Wednesday in the leading medical journal the Lancet found that the HPV vaccine cut cervical cancer rates by 87%. Those vaccinated between the ages of 14 and 16 reported a 62% reduction and those between 16 and 18 had a 24% less chance compared to the unvaccinated.

    “This is really exciting as it’s the first time we’ve been able to see the real-world impact of the UK vaccination program,” said Sophia Lowes, health information manager at Cancer Research UK. The London-based charity funded the study conducted along with the British government and researchers at King’s College London.

    Immunogenicity Efficacy And Effectiveness


    HPV vaccine is highly immunogenic. More than 99% of vaccine recipients develop an antibody response to vaccine HPV types after completing a 3-dose series. In immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9 to 14 years of age, a 2-dose schedule of HPV2, HPV4, or HPV9 vaccine is as equally immunogenic as a 3 dose series in individuals 15 to 24 years of age. The immune correlates of protection against HPV infection are unknown.

    Efficacy and effectiveness

    In Canada, immunization against HPV types 16 and 18 contained in HPV2, HPV4 and HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 70% of anogenital cancers and 60% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization against HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 contained in HPV9 vaccine could further prevent up to 14% of anogenital cancers and 30% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization with either HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 90% of genital warts.

    HPV vaccine has no proven therapeutic effect on existing HPV infection. Prior infection with one or more vaccine HPV types does not diminish vaccine efficacy against other vaccine HPV types. The duration of protection following HPV vaccination is not known. Clinical trial subjects have been followed for approximately 10 years for HPV2 and HPV4 vaccines with no evidence of waning protection.

    Recommended Reading: Can We Drink Alcohol After Vaccination

    Hpv Vaccination Guidance For Healthcare Practitioners

    This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: .

    Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

    This publication is available at

    National Advisory Committee On Immunization Recommendations

    Moms First: HPV vaccine controversy

    In February 2007, based on sound scientific consideration, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization issued recommendations for the use of Gardasil® for females ages nine to 26. In January 2012, NACI issued an update on human papillomavirus vaccines, which included recommendations in light of the expanded use of Gardasil® for males ages nine to 26 and females ages 27 to 45, as well as the approval of Cervarix® for females. In 2015, NACI issued updated recommendations on the HPV immunization schedule, including recommendations for either a 2- or 3- dose schedule in healthy, immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9-14 years of age, based on new evidence about the efficacy of HPV vaccines in this population. In 2016, NACI issued recommendations on the new vaccine, Gardasil®9, authorized for use in Canada. In 2017, NACI provided evidence-based recommendations on a 2-dose schedule for the most recently approved HPV vaccine, and summarized evidence and resulting recommendations on HPV immunization in immunocompromised populations.

    Currently, all HPV vaccines are recommended by NACI for:

    • girls and women 9 to less than 27 years of age, including those who have had previous Pap test abnormalities, cervical cancer or genital warts, and may be administered to women 27 years of age and older at ongoing risk of exposure to HPV

    HPV vaccination prior to onset of sexual activity and exposure to HPV is recommended to maximize the benefit of the vaccine.

    Don’t Miss: Does Urgent Care Do Vaccinations

    Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Given At Such A Young Age

    HPV infections can be spread by any skin-to-skin contact and are usually found on the fingers, hands, mouth and genitals.

    This means the virus can be spread during any kind of sexual activity, including touching.

    The HPV vaccine works best if girls and boys get it before they come into contact with HPV .

    So getting the vaccine when recommended will help protect them during their teenage years and beyond.

    Most unvaccinated people will be infected with some type of HPV at some time in their life.

    The virus does not usually do any harm because the person’s immune system clears the infection.

    But sometimes the infection stays in the body for many years, and then it may start to cause damage.

    Popular Articles
    Related news