How Is The Hpv Vaccine Made
The HPV vaccine is made using a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. The protein is grown in the lab in yeast cells. Once the protein is grown, it assembles itself to look like the HPV virus however, importantly, it does not contain HPV genetic material, so it cant reproduce itself or cause illness. The vaccine is composed of the surface protein from nine different types of HPV.
Personal Stories About Considering Getting The Hpv Vaccine
These stories are based on information gathered from health professionals and consumers. They may be helpful as you make important health decisions.
Getting some shots doesn’t seem like that big of a deal if it will keep me from getting genital warts. So I’m going to get the HPV shots.
Greg, age 20
I’m not going to get the shots, because I don’t plan on having sex until I’m in a long-term relationship. I don’t think I’m at much risk of getting HPV.
Jennifer, age 18.
I want to do everything I can to prevent cervical cancer, so I want to get the vaccinations.
Tracy, age 23
The Ideal Candidate For Hpv Vaccination
HPV vaccination is most effective in adolescents and young adults . The HPV vaccine can help protect against disease-causing strains of HPV that can develop into cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer cases. Because of its higher rates of efficacy when administered earlier on, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -recommended target age to receive the vaccine is between 11 or 12 years of agebefore most people become sexually active.
That said, the vaccines are U.S. Food and Drug Administration -approved for use in people with vaginas to age 45. The CDC provisionally recommends the HPV vaccine for adults older than 27 if the healthcare provider deems there could be a benefit based on your history.
A 2020 guideline update for HPV vaccination from the American Cancer Society recommends routine HPV vaccination begin at age 9 due to evidence that earlier initiation makes it more likely for vaccination to be happening on time on a wider scale. ACS does not recommend HPV vaccination after age 26 due to the decreased benefit and a shortage of the vaccine that is expected to continue for several years.
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What Hpv Testing Is Available
HPV tests for men are not available, and most HPV infections clear on their own without causing problems. However, health problems caused by HPV, which can include genital warts, anal cancer, penile cancer or cancers of the head and neck, can be checked by visiting your doctor.
Women can get HPV tests and/or Pap tests to determine whether they have an HPV infection that can lead to cancer. Both tests detect early health problems that can lead to cervical cancer, but neither checks for warning signs of other cancers, fertility or other STDs. Although both tests have a common goal, they do have their differences:
- Recommended for women 21 and older.
- Involves scraping the cervix to identify any abnormal changes in cells of the cervix that could later develop into cancer.
- Results are typically reported as normal, unclear, or abnormal:
- Normal means that no changes were found in the cells
- Unclear indicates that the cells look like they could be abnormal
- Abnormal means that changes in cervical cells were found
If both tests are normal, it is highly unlikely that serious cervical cell changes will develop in the next three years however, regular wellness visits should not be skipped.
Does The Nhs Offer Free Hpv Vaccinations To Anyone Else
HPV vaccinations are generally not available free of charge from the NHS unless you fit into the groups mentioned above. So you cannot get a free vaccine unless you’re:
- Offered on in school as part of the national immunisation programmes
- A female aged 24 years or younger and missed your vaccination at school when you were invited as part of the UKs Schools based programme
- A man who has sex with other men and are up to 45 years of age
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Will My Insurance Cover The Cost Of The Hpv Vaccine
Most insurance plans cover routine vaccines, which means that if you’re in the recommended age group, your insurance should pay for the vaccine. Check with your insurance company just to be sure. If your family doesn’t have health insurance or you’re on Medicaid, you should be able to get the HPV vaccine for free through the Vaccines for Children program.
The Hpv Vaccine: Doses And Timings
Gardasil has been the HPV vaccine used in the NHS vaccination schedule since 2012.
Sometime during the 2021 to 2022 academic year the HPV vaccine used in the NHS programme will switch to Gardasil 9.
2 doses are needed to complete the course, with the 2nd dose given 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
Gardasil 9 can be given for the 1st and 2nd dose or to complete a course that was previously started with Gardasil.
Your school will let you know when your vaccinations are due.
If you miss one of the doses, speak to the school immunisation team or your GP surgery about making an appointment to have the missed dose. Ideally, this should be done as close as possible to the date of the missed vaccine.
Page last reviewed: 10 May 2019 Next review due: 10 May 2022
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Who Should Not Get Hpv Vaccine
Tell your doctor about any severe allergies. Some people should not get some HPV vaccines if:
- They have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any ingredient of an HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine.
- They have an allergy to yeast .
- They are pregnant.
HPV vaccines are safe for children who are mildly ill, like those with a low-grade fever of less than 101 degrees, a cold, runny nose, or cough. People with a moderate or severe illness should wait until they are better.
Cons Of Hpv Vaccine Administration
The benefits of vaccine administration for HPV prevention have been summarized in the preceding section, but what are the risks and downsides to widespread adoption of the vaccination program? The CDC published a summary document of adverse events reported in JAMA for vaccine administration from time of approval in June 2006 to December 2008. The study also included patterns in adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and was the first nationwide published HPV post licensure study. . Overall, the vaccine continues to be safe and effective and concluded that benefits continue to outweigh its risks. The main findings are summarized below as compiled from the reports with updated data to the July 2014 report .
More than 67 million doses were administered nationally since the HPV vaccine was licensed in June 2006 until March 2014. There were 25,176 reports to VAERS of adverse events.
About 92.4% of the adverse events were not serious. Adverse events are considered serious if it is life threatening, or results in death, permanent disability, abnormal conditions at birth, hospitalization or prolonged administration.
The most common events reported were:
Syncope -common after needle injections, especially in pre-teens and teens
Local reactions at the site of immunization
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Ethical And Practical Considerations
From the epidemiological perspective, widespread adoption of universal vaccination against HPV has strong supporting evidence. Worldwide, HPV infection is responsible for half a million cases of cancer and more than 250,000 deaths every year . The highest incidence of the virus is occurs in developing countries that do not have resources to promote prevention or insure adequate treatment of the disease. The current worldwide scope of vaccination is greater than 120,000,000 people worldwide being vaccinated since the introduction of the vaccines in 2006. The relatively minor side effects of the vaccine seem to be worth the almost 100% effectiveness in preventing pre-cancerous lesions caused by the HPV oncogenic viral subtypes . To date, none of the deaths that occurred after vaccine administration have been directly linked to the vaccine. In June 2013, Japan became the only country to cease the active promotion of the vaccine for patients until more studies related to the incidence of side effects could be completed .
Patient Education And Vaccination Efforts
High rates of HPV vaccination will reduce the burden of HPV-related disease in the United States. Current vaccination rates are unacceptably low. Studies have shown that physicians recommendations have the strongest influence in the acceptance of HPV vaccination by patients and parents of patients 35. Obstetriciangynecologists and other health care professionals should strongly recommend HPV vaccination to eligible patients and stress the benefits and safety of the HPV vaccine. Further, obstetriciangynecologists are encouraged to stock and administer HPV vaccines in their offices when feasible. Obstetriciangynecologists play a critical role and should assess and vaccinate adolescent girls age 1112 years and previously unvaccinated young women during the catch-up period . Health care professionals should use shared clinical decision making with previously unvaccinated women aged 2745 years to assess the benefit of HPV vaccination.
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When Should Adults Get The Hpv Vaccine
The best time to get the HPV vaccine is before you’ve started having sexual activity. That’s why the CDC recommends that both boys and girls get their vaccination at age 11 or 12, although they can get the vaccine as early as age 9. If you’re 13 or older and you haven’t already been vaccinated, you can still get the vaccine.
It is recommended for all people through the age of 26. Some adults ages 27-45 may get the vaccine after talking with their doctor.
How many shots do I need?
The CDC recommends two doses of HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12 years. The second shot should be given 6-12 months after the first.
If you can get all shots prior to age 15, only two are needed. Three doses are needed if you get the first dose on or after your 15th birthday, and for people with weakened immune systems. The second dose should be given 1-2 months after the first dose. And the third dose should be given 6 months after the first dose.
If I already have HPV, will this vaccine treat it?
If you have a current HPV, the vaccine won’t get rid of it. But, if you have one type of HPV, the vaccine may prevent you from getting another type of the virus. There’s really no way to treat the virus once you have it, although there are treatments for diseases caused by HPV such as genital warts and genital cancers. This is why you should have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer.
Questions About How Hpv Vaccine Is Made And Works
Q. How long does it take for someone to be protected after getting the HPV vaccine?
A. It takes about two weeks after the first dose of vaccine for the immune system to generate an immune response. The additional doses make that response stronger, particularly the last one which fortifies the memory response.
Q. If I got the HPV vaccine, do I need to use protection?
A. It is important to understand that the HPV vaccine does not protect against other STDs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes, nor does it protect against types of HPV to which one was already exposed. For these reasons, using protection is still prudent to consider.
I have had one dose of the HPV vaccine. Will I be protected if I become sexually active?
While you may have some protection after receiving the first dose of HPV vaccine, your best level of protection will occur after you receive all recommended doses.
I did not tell the doctor that I am sexually active before getting the HPV vaccine. Will it still work?
The HPV vaccine will not protect you against types of HPV to which you may have already been exposed however, it will protect you against types to which you were not previously exposed. Since the vaccine protects against nine types of HPV, it is likely that you can still benefit from receiving the vaccine. For this reason, knowing your sexual activity status is not a requirement for deciding whether or not you should get the HPV vaccine.
Will an HPV booster shot ever be required?
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When Was The Hpv Vaccine Introduced In The Uk
The first version of the HPV vaccine was introduced in 2008. Initially it was only offered to girls in UK schools aged 12 or 13, however from 2019 it was approved for boys of the same age. In 2018, the HPV vaccine was approved for men who have sex with men .
The latest development has been a switch in the type of vaccine used for the national programme. Previously, the vaccine Gardasil was used this protects against four strains of HPV which are known to cause cancer and genital warts. The new version, Gardasil 9, prevents against nine strains, which means it offers a higher level of protection, will now be offered as part of the programme.
Key Points To Remember
- The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends the vaccine for females and males ages 9 to 26. Adults age 27 to 45 can talk to their doctor about getting the vaccine.
- The HPV vaccine protects against HPV. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection . There are many types of HPV. Some types of the virus can cause genital warts. Other types can cause cervical or oral cancer and some uncommon cancers, such as vaginal and anal cancer. The HPV vaccine protects against the most common HPV types that can cause serious problems.
- People age 15 and older get the vaccine as a three-dose series. For the vaccine to work best, all shots in the series must be given.
- The best time to get the vaccine is before you become sexually active. But it also protects against HPV after you’re sexually active . When the vaccine is given before you’re sexually active, it can prevent almost all infection by the types of HPV the vaccine guards against.
- The HPV vaccines were tested in thousands of people before being approved by Health Canada, and there were no serious side effects. You can’t get HPV from the vaccine.
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Vaccine Misinformation On Social Media
Why are more parents concerned now about vaccine safety than when it was first launched or in 2015 now that over 135 million doses have been administered in the United States? Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the Duke University School of Medicine, and his colleagues .
Studies have shown that while individuals trust medical professionals for health information, a growing number are turning to the internet for first and second opinions about HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV-associated cancer, they continued.
Unfortunately, some information about HPV vaccines and cancer found online and on social media is inaccurate. There has been a rise in negative and incorrect informationalso called misinformationabout HPV vaccines on social media in recent years, Dr. Sonawane noted. And research has shown that parents who are exposed to misinformation about HPV vaccines on social media are less likely to vaccinate their children.
Nationwide programs, such as CDCs Vaccinate with Confidence program, can help tackle vaccine misinformation and provide resources for effective communications, Dr. Sonawane said. There are also resources like smartphone apps, she added, that teach health care providers effective strategies for talking with parents about the HPV vaccine.
How Do You Get Hpv
HPV stands for human papillomavirus. You can get HPV by having sex or skin-to-skin genital contact with someone who has the virus. Infection with HPV is common, especially among young people. But most people never know they have the virus, because it may not cause any symptoms.
There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus. Some types of HPV lead to cervical cancer or genital warts.
- Cervical cancer happens when HPV causes abnormal cells in the cervix to grow out of control. HPV can stay in your body for a long time. It can take years for a woman to get cancer from an HPV infection. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women.
- Genital warts may or may not cause symptoms. Even if you treat visible warts, or if the warts go away without treatment, the HPV infection can stay in the body’s cells. It’s possible to spread genital warts to a sex partner even if you can’t see the warts.
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Merck Vaccine Program Income Eligibility Requirements
In 2021, you could qualify for the Merck assistance program if you made $51,520 or less as an individual, $69,680 or less as a couple, or $106,000 or less as a family of four.
Merck will also take special circumstances into account and makes exceptions on a case-by-case basis. Do not let the income qualifications deter you from applying. You may still be approved based on your specific situation.
For more information, call Merck Patient Assistance Program at 727-5400 or visit the company’s website.
How Much Does Hpv Vaccination Cost And Will Insurance Pay For It
Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The federal Affordable Care Act requires most private insurance plans to cover recommended preventive services with no copay or deductible.
Medicaid covers HPV vaccination in accordance with ACIP recommendations, and immunizations are a mandatory service under Medicaid for eligible individuals under age 21. In addition, the federal Vaccines for Children Program provides immunization services for children younger than 19 years who are Medicaid eligible, uninsured, underinsured, or Native American or Alaska Native.
Merck, the manufacturer of Gardasil 9, offers the Merck Vaccine Patient Assistance Program, which provides Gardasil 9 for free to people aged 19 to 45 years who live in the United States, do not have health insurance, and have an annual household income less than a certain amount.
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