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Where To Find Yellow Fever Vaccine

The Yellow Fever Certificate:

Get Vaccinated For Yellow Fever

Everyone receiving a vaccine against Yellow Fever should also receive a Certificate of Vaccination Against Yellow Fever. Some people should not receive the vaccination due to medical reasons such as: suppressed immune system, cancer/chemotherapy or severe egg allergy. Also advanced age and multiple medical problems can be a relative contraindication.

If you cannot take the Yellow Fever Vaccine for medical reasons you can still obtain a exemption certificate and letter from e7 Health that will permit you to enter a country that otherwise requires vaccination.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres

Returning to Canada? Travellers to Canada must submit COVID-related information electronically. Use ArriveCAN to comply with the new mandatory requirements.

Notice: The list of clinics below may contain inaccurate or out-of-date entries, including information for clinics that are no longer designated as Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres. We continue to work to update our database and correct these listings. Please contact with questions, or to verify if the clinic you are visiting for your Yellow Fever vaccine has a current, valid designation.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres are designated by the Public Health Agency of Canada, on behalf of Canada, in order to meet the requirements of the International Health Regulations.

A Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre is a health care site:

  • where the Canadian public can receive the yellow fever vaccine
  • that provides the public with the required International Health Regulations documentation to be presented at a country border, if vaccination against yellow fever is a country entry requirement
  • that ensures the quality and safety in the procedures and materials employed.

Find a health care site in your area that has been designated as a Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre. These health care sites may also provide additional travel health services.

Do The Benefits Of The Yellow Fever Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

Every year thousands of people in the world catch yellow fever and about one of every five die from the disease. Travelers from the United States to countries where yellow fever occurs can and do get yellow fever, and there are no specific agents to treat it. On the other hand, the yellow fever vaccine does not have serious side effects. Therefore, for those traveling to countries where yellow fever is common, the benefits of the yellow fever vaccine outweigh its risks.

Also, remember that the vaccine is not required for entry to some countries where the disease is common. The decision to get the vaccine should be based on whether you are traveling to a country where the disease is common, and not on whether the vaccine is required! .

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Is Yellow Fever Vaccine Recommended For People 60 Years And Older Who Will Be Traveling To Areas With Risk For Yellow Fever

People aged 60 years may be at increased risk for serious adverse events following vaccination, compared with younger persons. This is particularly true if they are receiving their first yellow fever vaccination. Travelers aged 60 years should discuss with their healthcare provider the risks and benefits of the vaccine given their travel plans. In addition to considering the vaccine, travelers to endemic areas should protect themselves from yellow fever and other vector-borne diseases. Preventive measures include wearing clothes with long sleeves and long pants and using an effective insect repellent such as those with DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres In British Columbia

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Notice: The list of clinics below may contain inaccurate or out-of-date entries, including information for clinics that are no longer designated as Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres. We continue to work to update our database and correct these listings. Please contact with questions, or to verify if the clinic you are visiting for your Yellow Fever vaccine has a current, valid designation.

The following is a list of health care sites that have been designated as Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres by the Public Health Agency of Canada, on behalf of Canada, in order to meet the requirements of the International Health Regulations.

The Public Health Agency of Canada does not provide medical advice to individual travellers. For advice specific to your travel plans, please consult a health care provider. Travellers going to yellow fever areas will find additional information in the Questions & Answers section.

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Who Should Get The Yellow Fever Vaccine

  • People 9 months of age and older traveling to countries that require proof of yellow fever vaccination
  • People 9 months of age and older traveling to parts of South America and Africa where the risk of yellow fever is known to exist
  • Laboratory personnel or anyone who may have been exposed to the yellow fever virus or vaccine virus

How Can You Avoid Yellow Fever

The best way to avoid yellow fever is to avoid being bitten by a mosquito. Between dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes most often appear to feed, you and your child should take refuge indoors. You should also:

  • Use mosquito netting over the bed
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants
  • Wear insect-repellants with DEET on exposed skin
  • Wear clothing treated with insect-repellants such as permethrin

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Africa Activities Isolation Of Virus And A New Host

After World War I, the Rockefeller Foundation expanded its yellow fever activities to Africa. The second West African Yellow Fever Commission was formed in 1925 . The tense and tragic story of this expedition has been told many times , and only brief comments will be made here. The expedition, based near Lagos, was to determine whether African yellow fever was the same as yellow fever in South America, to find the causative agent , and to study its epidemiology. Major Henry Beeuwkes, a Hopkins-trained bacteriologist retired from the army, led the expedition. He was joined by Adrian Stokes, a London-based professor of pathology who was an expert on leptospirosis, and others.

However, the virus now could be removed to the laboratory and properly studied. In short order, it was shown that serum from immune humans protected monkeys against infection, immune serum from South America protected against the African virus , and killed virus would not confer immunity.

Initially, some crude vaccines using formalin and phenol-preserved liver tissue were made, with uncertain results . Clearly, a form of attenuated live vaccine, as well as a more affordable laboratory host, were needed. Theiler found a better host.

What Is Yellow Fever Vaccine

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Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by a virus that is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever can cause fever and flu-like illness, jaundice , liver failure, lung failure, kidney failure, vomiting of blood, and possibly death.

Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who plan to live in or travel to areas where yellow fever is known to exist, or those who are otherwise at high risk of coming into contact with the virus.

This vaccine is used to help prevent yellow fever in adults and children who are at least 9 months old. The vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

You should receive the vaccine at least 10 days prior to your arrival in an area where you may be exposed to the virus.

This vaccine is also recommended for people who work in a research laboratory and may be exposed to yellow fever virus through needle-stick accidents or inhalation of viral droplets in the air.

Like any vaccine, the yellow fever vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Yellow Fever

Initial symptoms of yellow fever include sudden onset of fever, chills, severe headache, back pain, general body aches, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and weakness. Most people improve after these initial symptoms. However, roughly 15% of people will have a brief period of hours to a day without symptoms and will then develop a more severe form of yellow fever disease. In severe cases, a person may develop high fever, jaundice , bleeding , and eventually shock and failure of many organs. Roughly 20-50% of people who develop severe illness may die.

What Is Involved In A Travel Medicine Consultation

e7 Health provides Travel Medicine Consultations for travelers by reviewing each client’s specific itinerary, previous immunizations, medical history, allergies and contraindications, and then offering the following:

  • All appropriate vaccines
  • Draw blood titers in house to prove immunity from previous vaccinations or exposures if requested
  • Prescriptions for medications as indicated, including
  • Anti-Malarial
  • Official Yellow Fever Exempt Letters for persons with a medical contraindication to Yellow Fever Vaccine
  • Insect Precautions and Insect Repellents
  • Blood Clot Prevention for long air flights
  • Water and Food precautions
  • Current outbreaks and health and safety concerns for areas of travel
  • Pre-travel Checklist
  • Swimming and Water Exposure Advice
  • Safety and Crime Avoidance
  • Maps of Malaria and Yellow Fever areas, if appropriate.
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    Yellow Fever Vaccine Recommendations

    U.S. Yellow Fever Vaccine Access

    Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who are 9 months old or older and who are traveling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever virus in Africa and South America.

    For most people, a single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and a booster dose of the vaccine is not needed. However, travelers going to areas with ongoing outbreaks may consider getting a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine if it has been 10 years or more since they were last vaccinated. Certain countries might also require a booster dose of the vaccine visit Travelers Health for information on specific country requirements.

    Talk to your healthcare provider to determine if you need a yellow fever vaccination or a booster shot before your trip to an area at risk for yellow fever.

    Some people may have an increased risk of developing a reaction to the vaccine, but may still benefit from being vaccinated. These people, or their guardians, should talk to a healthcare provider about getting vaccinated:

    • Between 6 and 8 months old
    • Over 60 years old
    • Pregnant
    • Breastfeeding

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    Sanofi Pasteur announced that YF-VAX is once again available for purchase in the United States. Providers with a current Yellow Fever Vaccination Stamp issued by their state or territorial health department may now order YF-VAX from the manufacturer.

    Locations that administer yellow fever vaccine can be found on CDCs yellow fever vaccination clinic search page.

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    International Certificate Of Vaccination Or Prophylaxis

    The IHR allow countries to require proof of YF vaccination documented on an ICVP as a condition of entry for travelers arriving from certain countries, even if only in transit, to prevent importation and indigenous transmission of YF virus. Some countries require evidence of vaccination from all entering travelers, which includes direct travel from the United States . A traveler who has a specific contraindication to YF vaccine and who cannot avoid travel to a country requiring vaccination should request a waiver from a physician before embarking on travel . Travelers arriving without proof of YF vaccination or a medical waiver to a country that has a YF vaccination entry requirement may be quarantined for up to 6 days, refused entry, or vaccinated onsite.

    People who received YF vaccination after December 15, 2007, must provide proof of vaccination on the new ICVP. If the person received the vaccine before December 15, 2007, their original International Certificate of Vaccination against Yellow Fever card is still valid as proof of vaccination. Vaccinees should receive a completed ICVP , validated with the stamp of the center where the vaccine was given . Failure to secure validations can cause a traveler to be quarantined, denied entry, or possibly revaccinated at the point of entry to a country.

    People Authorized to Sign the ICVP and Designated Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers

    Medical Waivers

    Preparations Available Including Combinations

    All yellow fever vaccines approved for distribution are live attenuated 17DD or 17D-204 substrain viruses, prepared in embryonated chicken eggs, and formulated as lyophilized powder. Vaccines vary with respect to stabilizer additives and salt content. Some contain sodium chloride and buffer salts and are reconstituted with sterile water, and others are reconstituted with saline solution.

    Vaccines differ with respect to expiration date, but all require storage at the point of use at 2°C to 8°C and should be used within 1 hour after reconstitution. However, for use in mass immunization campaigns and the EPI, reconstituted vaccine may be used during an 8-hour workday if it is maintained on ice. Vaccines are supplied in single-dose and multidose containers with up to 20 doses.574a

    Vaccines produced in France Brazil , Russia , and Senegal are exported for international use or supplied to the EPI through the UNICEF and PAHO bid markets . The vaccines produced elsewhere are used almost exclusively in-country for travelers and military personnel.

    Although certain combination vaccines have been clinically tested , no products are currently commercialized.

    Mark D. Gershman, J. Erin Staples, in, 2012

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    Some History Of Yellow Fever:

    Years ago yellow fever was more widespread than it is today. The mosquito that transmits the disease can be found in many countries, including the United States. It would breakout in epidemics called “Urban Transmission” and sweep through cities causing widespread death. The disease has been referenced in movies such as Gone with the Wind. In Africa and South America the disease persists through jungle or sylvatic transmission and is always a potential threat.

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    The following list of resources can help international travelers identify health care providers and facilities around the world. CDC does not endorse any particular provider or medical insurance company, and accreditation does not ensure a good outcome.

    • The nearest US embassy or consulate can help travelers locate medical services and notify friends, family, or employer of an emergency. They are available for emergencies 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, overseas and in Washington, DC .

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    Who Should Get Yellow Fever Vaccine

    Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people age 9 months or older who are traveling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever virus transmission in South America and Africa. Proof of yellow fever vaccine may be required for entry into certain countries. Country-specific yellow fever risk information, along with vaccine recommendations, can be found in the Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Recommendations table. For some countries, there are only certain areas where there is a risk for yellow fever for those countries, more specific information is given in the chart to guide the recommendation for vaccination.

    How Does The Vaccine Work

    The yellow fever vaccine causes your immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. Its administered as a relatively painless injection.

    If youre in the United States and are planning to travel to an area where yellow fever is common, youll need to get vaccinated at an authorized yellow fever vaccination center.

    You can find their locations here.

    Originally, a single dose was meant to last for at least 10 years. But in 2013, the World Health Organization announced that a single injection should provide life-long immunity.

    Keep in mind that this change still isnt reflected in the International Health Regulations, a legally-binding document put out by WHO. As a result, some countries may not accept a certificate thats more than 10 years old.

    You can check regulations in specific countries

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    Symptoms Of Yellow Fever

    The most recognizable symptom of Yellow Fever is a yellowing of the skin and eyes , hence the name of the disease. Other symptoms may include:

    • High fever
    • Flu-like symptoms which may include muscle pains, headache, nausea and vomiting
    • Abdominal pain

    About 15 percent of people who get yellow fever develop serious symptoms that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.

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    The yellow fever vaccine is required for entry into many countries in Africa and South America. The vaccine is also used in countries where yellow fever occurs, but the vaccine is not required for entry. The vaccine is given as a single shot to anyone older than 9 months of age, and may be given as a booster dose every 10 years for those who are at continued risk.

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    Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

    The following people should generally not get the vaccine, however if travel cannot be avoided, discuss the benefits versus the risks of the yellow fever vaccine with your health care provider.

    • Children less than 9 months of age
    • People 60 years of age and older
    • People with a history of thymus disease or disorder, including myasthenia gravis, thymoma, thymectomy, or DiGeorge syndrome. You could have an increased risk of multiple organ system failure after getting the vaccine. The size of the risk is not currently known

    Speak with a travel clinic or health care provider if you have or had any of the following reactions or conditions:

    • A life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of yellow fever vaccine, or any component of the vaccine including gelatin, or to latex
    • A serious allergy to eggs
    • An immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment
    • Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis . The yellow fever vaccine may increase risk of MS relapse if you have relapsing-remitting MS
    • Severe immunodeficiency due to symptomatic HIV/AIDS or other causes
    • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Exceptions may be made during an outbreak when the risk of infection is high

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