Is Meningococcal Vaccine The Same As Meningitis Vaccine
The 2 types of meningococcal/meningitis vaccines offer protection against the ACWY and B strains of Neisseria bacteria that can cause meningitis . A pneumococcal vaccine is routinely administered to infants and young children which helps to prevent pneumococcal meningitis, a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal disease.
Who Is At Risk For Meningococcal Disease
Meningococcal disease can affect people at any age. Certain groups seem to be at increased risk of contracting the disease including those in close contact with a known case, patients with compromised immunity, and persons traveling to specific endemic areas of Asia, Africa, or South America.
Since 1991, cases of meningococcal disease among 15-24 year olds have more than doubled. Recent evidence found students residing on campus in dormitories appear to be at higher risk for meningococcal disease. The highest risk appeared to be in freshmen living in dormitories, who seemed to have a six times higher risk than college students overall. Data also suggests that certain social behaviors such as exposure to passive and active smoking, bar patronage, and excessive alcohol consumption may increase students’ risk for contracting the disease.
What Happens After The Immunization
Your child might have a fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness at the injection area. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help reduce soreness, as can moving or using the arm.
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All Infants Children And Adults
Any person from 6 weeks of age who wants to protect themselves against meningococcal disease is recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine and MenB vaccine
Any person who wants to protect themselves against invasive meningococcal disease can receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines from as early as 6 weeks of age.
A summary of the recommendations for use of meningococcal vaccines is shown in Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for people at risk of meningococcal disease. The table shows the type of vaccines that are strongly recommended for specific age groups and special risk groups. See below for brand and dosing recommendations.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands . Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years who wish to receive a MenB vaccine. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Recommended dose schedules
For recommended dose schedules for healthy people aged 2 years who wish to receive meningococcal vaccine, see Table. Recommendations for meningococcal vaccines for healthy people aged 2 years, by age and vaccine brand.
Interchangeability Of Meningococcal Vaccines
If possible, complete the primary course of MenACWY vaccination with the same vaccine brand. If this is not possible, use an alternative brand following the dose recommendations by age. See Recommended dose schedules.
People can receive booster doses of MenACWY vaccine using any brand. Menveo or Nimenrix are preferred to Menactra in people aged 2 years.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. Use the same vaccine to complete the vaccination course.
The only absolute contraindications to meningococcal vaccines are:
- anaphylaxis after a previous dose of any meningococcal vaccine
- anaphylaxis after any component of a meningococcal vaccine
Previous meningococcal disease, regardless of the serogroup, is not a contraindication to receiving any meningococcal vaccine.
Previous vaccination with the strain-specific MenB vaccine used in New Zealand is not a contraindication to receiving either Bexsero or Trumenba.
Previous vaccination with a quadrivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine is not a contraindication to receiving any MenACWY vaccine. See People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Laboratory workers or Travellers.
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How Long Does The Meningitis Vaccine Last
Available data suggests that protection from meningococcal conjugate decreases in many teens within five years. Getting a booster, as determined by your health care provider, may be critical in maintaining protection when most at risk for meningococcal disease.
Some adolescents and young adults may also receive a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. The preferred age for receipt is 16 through 18 years so adolescents have protection during the ages of increased risk.2
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Two doses of Men-C-ACYW vaccine are recommended for persons with anatomic or functional asplenia, including sickle cell disease. When elective splenectomy is planned, all recommended vaccines should ideally be completed at least 2 weeks before surgery if only one dose can be given before surgery, the second dose should be given 8 weeks after the first dose, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. In the case of an emergency splenectomy, two doses of vaccine should ideally be given beginning 2 weeks after surgery but can be given earlier, before discharge, if the person might not return for vaccination after discharge. Persons one year of age and older with asplenia who have not received Men-C-ACYW vaccine should receive two doses administered 8 weeks apart, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. In addition, 4CMenB or MenB-fHBP vaccine should be offered. Periodic booster doses with Men-C-ACYW vaccine are also recommended.
Refer to Table 1 for vaccination recommendations of high risk individuals due to underlying conditions. Refer to Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information and Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Who Should Receive A Meningitis Vaccine
Meningitis vaccination is recommended for individuals over 11-years-old. This includes both the A, C, W and Y immunization and the B vaccination.
Travellers or others who could be exposed to meningitis should also be vaccinated this includes:
- Travellers to the meningitis belt in Africa
- Travellers going to Hajj in Saudi Arabia
- Individuals who work in confined conditions
- Healthcare workers
- College or other students
If you have not been vaccinated, or are unsure of your vaccination history, Passport Health can help. We keep meningitis vaccinations in-stock and ready for your trip or need. Call to schedule your appointment or book online now.
How The Meningococcal Meningitis Vaccine Works
The meningococcal type of meningitis is caused by way of the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Multiple lines of this germ motive most of the meningococcal meningitis circumstances in the United States. These strains, or serotypes, are A, B, C, W and Y.
The meningitis vaccine for meningococcal disease is available in two forms. The meningococcal conjugate vaccine protects against serotypes A, C, W and Y. The serogroup B recombinant vaccine protects in opposition to serotype B.
All vaccines paintings the similar manner: they lend a hand your immune system identify threats and struggle them off. These meningitis vaccines introduce tiny fragments of particular parts of the meningococcus bacterium to the frame. This provokes a robust immune reaction towards the germ if it invades the bloodstream someday. Your immune machine briefly stops the infection before it starts.
Vaccines also are to be had to struggle off two other bacterial reasons of meningitis, specifically the pneumococcal vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Hib vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae kind B.
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Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY vaccine.
The dose schedule for MenACWY vaccine depends on the vaccine brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
Infants aged < 9 months can receive 2 of the 3 MenACWY brands .
Infants and children aged 9 months to 2 years can receive any of the 3 MenACWY vaccine brands, following the age-appropriate dosing schedule.
For all people aged 2 years, a single dose of MenACWY vaccine is recommended. In this age group, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 months to 19 years are strongly recommended to receive a course of MenB vaccine.
The dose schedule for MenB vaccine depends on the brand and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
People aged 29 years should receive 2 doses of Bexsero, 8 weeks apart.
People aged 10 years can receive 2 doses of either MenB vaccine:
- 2 doses of Bexsero, with 8 weeks between doses, or
- 2 doses of Trumenba, with 6 months between doses
Meningococcal B Vaccine Bexsero
Bexsero is broadly protective against meningococcal group B disease. Bexsero can be used to protect babies, children, adolescents and adults. Infants younger than twelve months of age need three doses to be fully protected. Older children, adolescents, and adults need two doses to be protected.
From 1 July 2021, Bexsero vaccine will be provided free of charge to close contacts of meningococcal cases of any meningococcal group , or people who are at higher risk of contracting meningococcal B disease because they:
are pre- or post-splenectomy
are pre- or post-solid organ transplant
are post-bone marrow transplant
are pre- or post-immunosuppression that will be/is longer than 28 days.
For others wishing to be protected against meningococcal B disease, Bexsero is available through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $150 per dose.
Bexsero is different to the MeNZB vaccine used in New Zealand between 2004 and 2011. The MeNZB vaccine was designed to target a specific type of meningococcal group B bacterium that only caused disease here in New Zealand. MeNZB was not meant for long term use. The vaccine was withdrawn once the rate of disease was significantly reduced. However, the active component of the MeNZB vaccine has contributed to the successful development of Bexsero.
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Where Can I Find These Vaccines
Your doctor is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child. These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, vaccines for children and teens are regularly available at
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
If your doctor does not have these vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.
Vaccines may also be available at
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get vaccines in your community.
When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local vaccine registry, if available. This helps providers at future visits know what vaccines you or your child have already received.
Why Are Meningococcal Vaccines Important
Meningococcal disease is rare, but people do get it and teens, young adults, and people with certain health conditions are at increased risk. Meningococcal disease can cause serious infections of the lining of the brain and spinal cord or the blood.
Protection from these infections is especially important because they can quickly become very dangerous in fact, they can be deadly in just a few hours.
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease.
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Who Should Get The Men
The Men-C vaccine is given to infants as a series of 2 doses. The first is given at 2 months of age, and the second at 12 months. The vaccine is given at the same time as other childhood immunizations.
The vaccine may also be given to people:
- born before 2002 who are 24 years of age and under who did not get a dose of vaccine on or after their 10th birthday
- 18 years of age and older who have had a stem cell transplant and
- who have been in close contact with someone with meningococcal type C disease.
It is important to keep a record of all immunizations received.
How Do People Get Meningococcal Meningitis
Transmission is through close contact and by droplet – through saliva, mucus, kissing, sharing eating utensils, coughing and sneezing. This is a concern particularly in day-care centres, schools, college dormitories or young adults in close living conditions. It is also a risk if travelling in areas that have an outbreak of meningococcal infections. Transmission can occur from someone who is showing symptoms of meningococcal infection and also from asymptomatic carriers.
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Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends meningococcal vaccination for all preteens and teens. In certain situations, CDC also recommends other children and adults get meningococcal vaccines. Below is more information about which meningococcal vaccines, including booster shots, CDC recommends for people by age.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
What Is The Meningitis Vaccine
Do you need a meningitis vaccine?
Schedule an appointment with your local Passport Health Travel Medicine Specialist
There are two types of meningitis vaccinations available in Canada. One protects against A, C, W and Y strains, the other against B strains.
Meningitis B vaccination is recommended for youth age 16 to 23. It provides short term protection against infection. It is also recommended as a routine vaccination for some individuals over the age of 10 if: there has been an outbreak of meningitis B, they have a damaged or removed spleen, certain immune conditions among other similar indications.
Immunization against meningitis A, C, W and Y is recommended or required for most preteens.
Both of these vaccinations are relatively new. Many individuals over the age of 30 may not have been vaccinated.
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How Is Meningitis Prevented
The most effective way to protect against certain forms of bacterial meningitis is to complete the recommended vaccine schedule. Vaccines exist for three different types of meningitis-causing bacteria:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Haemophilus influenzae type b
- Neisseria meningitidis
For those in contact with people with meningococcal meningitis, antibiotics may be recommended. They may also be appropriate for the entire household if one family member develops severe Haemophilus influenzae type b and there is also a high-risk person residing in the home. Other measures that can be taken to help avoid meningitis include: avoiding contact with those who are sick, getting adequate sleep/rest, not smoking, and/or avoiding cigarette smoke altogether. Those at risk for severe disease such as the elderly, infants and people with weakened immune systems, in particular, should adhere to these measures.
What Is The Meningococcus
The meningococcus is a germ that can cause meningitis and blood infection . It can also cause other infections – for example, pneumonia, eye infection , joint infection and inflammation of the heart . It most commonly causes infections in babies under the age of 1 year. It can also cause infections in those aged 1-5 years and those aged 15-19 years.
Some of these infections are very serious and can be fatal if not treated quickly. There are different groups of meningococcal bacteria:
- Groups B, C and, more recently, W are the common strains in the UK. Most cases of bacterial meningitis in the UK are caused by group B. Most of the rest are caused by group C . Infection caused by group W has increased in the UK in recent years.
- Group A is rare in the UK but more common in certain parts of the world – in particular, sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Saudi Arabia.
- Groups Y, 29E and Z are rare in the UK but group W has been the cause of several recent outbreaks in different parts of the world, including the UK.
Infection with the meningococcus can affect anyone but those most at risk are children aged under 5 years , teenagers and young adults under the age of 25.
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Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccine
- This vaccine is provided free to infants as part of their routine immunizations. The vaccine is given as a series of two doses. The first is given at 2 months of age, and the second at 12 months.
- This vaccine is also free for people:
- Born before 2002, who are 24 years of age and under who did not get a dose of vaccine on or after their 10th birthday.
- Who have been in close contact with someone with meningococcal type C disease.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of The Vaccine
The vaccine is considered relatively free of side effects and is generally effective for three-five years. Minor reactions may include redness and swelling at the injection site that may last one to two days. About 2 percent of recipients may develop fever after vaccination. If you develop a high or persistent fever, consult a physician. Extremely rare allergic reactions have occurred, including those resulting in hives, asthma, and even anaphylaxis. As with any vaccine, vaccination with meningitis vaccine does not protect 100 percent of all susceptible individuals.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Meningococcal Vaccines
Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the injection, along with headache, fever, or tiredness. Serious problems, such as allergic reactions, are rare.
The meningococcal vaccines contains only a small piece of the germ, so it can’t cause meningococcal disease.
Meningococcal Acw & Y Vaccine Menactra Or Nimenrix
Menactra is a meningococcal conjugate vaccine to protect against meningococcal groups A, C, W and Y. Menactra is approved for use for those aged 9 months to 55 years.
From 1 December 2019, people aged 13-25 years living in boarding school hostels, tertiary education halls of residence, military barracks, or prisons, can receive a single dose of meningococcal ACWY vaccine free of charge. The catch-up programme is only available until 30 November 2021. For more details see Section 13.5 of the Immunisation Handbook 2020.
The vaccine is funded for children and adults with a medical condition that increases their risk of invasive meningococcal disease AND is listed on the Pharmaceutical Schedule.
Menactra is also available as a purchased vaccine through your family doctor. The cost is approximately $150 per dose. For children aged 9 – 23 months, two doses are given at least three months apart. For individuals aged 2 – 55 years, one dose is given.
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