What Is Typhoid Fever Vaccination
- Oral live-attenuated vaccine
- Injectable, combined with hepatitis A
In some typhoid-endemic countries with poor sanitation, new conjugate typhoid vaccines are now available to prevent typhoid fever. This formulation is given to adults aged 45 years old down to infants from 6 months of age, offering at least 3 years of protection These typhoid fever vaccines are not yet licensed in Australia.
Symptoms Of Typhoid Fever
The most common symptoms include:
- High fever
If you do not see your destination among this list, it does not mean you dont need the typhoid vaccine. Contact a travel medicine specialist at the UH Roe Green Center for Travel Medicine & Global Health for more information about recommended vaccines and disease prevention.
What Is The Typhoid Vaccine
In Canada there are two types of vaccines recommended to prevent typhoid fever. One is an oral vaccine called Vivotif which involves capsule pills taken over the course of four doses. The other option is through injectable typhoid vaccines. One of those injectable vaccines, Vivaxim is a combined vaccination to protect from both typhoid fever and hepatitis A.
Reaction to typhoid vaccinations are generally mild, and serious harm and side effects are rare. The injectable vaccines may cause minor pain and swelling at the injection site and approximately one to six percent of people can experience headaches, fever, rash, or diarrhea.
The length of protection varies based on the vaccination method you choose. The oral vaccine is effective for seven years, and the injectable vaccines require a booster shot every three years.
A typhoid vaccine can prevent up to 70% of cases. Protection against the infection will begin one to two weeks after vaccination, so it is recommended you see your Passport Health Travel Medicine Specialist a month prior to departure.
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How Long Before I Travel Should I Get A Typhoid Vaccination
Ideally, the injectable typhoid vaccine should be given at least two weeks before departure. The oral vaccine is given in the form of four capsules , and the last should be ingested at least a week before departure. You will develop partial protection if either type is administered closer to your departure date.
How Is Typhoid Fever Treated
While the disease can be cured if treated with appropriate antibiotics, resistance to typhoid bacteria is spreading and there are now extensive drug-resistant forms, resistant to several classes of antibiotics. Due to such cases, which are more prevalent in South Asia, getting a typhoid vaccine may be crucial if you’re planning to travel to these or other affected areas.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Typhoid Fever
A consistent, elevated fever of 103° to 104°F is a symptom of typhoid fever. A person may also experience a loss of appetite, stomach pains, headache and weakness. Sometimes a rash of flat, reddish spots will develop. Testing for Salmonella Typhi in blood or stool is the only way to diagnose typhoid fever.
What Should I Tell My Health Care Provider Before I Take This Medicine
They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
- active infection with fever
- low blood counts, like low white cell, platelet, or red cell counts
- recent or ongoing radiation therapy
- stomach or intestine problems
- an unusual or allergic reaction to vaccines, yeast, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
- pregnant or trying to get pregnant
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When Is It Safe To Get Pregnant After Being Vaccinated For Typhoid
The oral typhoid vaccine is a live vaccine, which theoretically may harm an unborn baby. Usually, it is recommended that pregnancy be postponed for four weeks after getting a live vaccine. No data are available regarding how long a woman should wait to get pregnant after receiving an injectable typhoid vaccination.
Who Should Not Receive Typhoid Vaccines
Very few people cannot be given the injectable typhoid vaccine. It should not be given to:
- People with an illness with high temperature . It is best to wait until the illness has subsided before being immunised.
- People who have had a severe reaction to the vaccine in the past.
- Young children – when children are too young to be vaccinated, very careful attention to food and water hygiene is essential if taking children to an at-risk area.
There are currently no data on the safety of these vaccines in pregnant or breast-feeding women. However, if the risk of typhoid is high then you may be advised to have the vaccine if you are breast-feeding or pregnant.
There are some additional restrictions that apply differently to the oral vaccine and to the injectable vaccine.
The oral vaccine should not be given to:
- People who have had an allergy to gelatin.
- Children under the age of 6 years.
- People who have reduced immunity .
The injectable vaccine should not be given to:
- Children under 2 years of age, as it is not licensed for them. This means that the manufacturer cannot offer guarantees about its effects or effectiveness in that age group.
- Children under the age of 2 years, who may not acquire the same level of immunity from the vaccine, due to the immaturity of their immune systems.
Note: doctors may occasionally recommend injectable vaccine use in children aged 12-24 months if the risk of typhoid is very high.
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How Can I Reduce My Chances Of Getting Typhoid
The best way to prevent typhoid infection is to get vaccinated. You may try to protect yourself from this infection by doing the following:
- Wash your hands with soap often
- Drink safe, adequately chlorinated water
- Eat at reputable places
- Eat food while it is still hot or boil or cook what you drink and eat for at least one minute at 185 °F
How Is Typhoid Prevented
Typhoid fever is preventable. If you are traveling outside the U.S. protect yourself by taking these two basic steps:
1. Do not consume questionable drinks or food2. Get vaccinated for typhoid fever
Being mindful of what you eat and drink while travelling abroad is as important as getting vaccinated for typhoid fever mainly because the vaccine isn’t always completely effective. Not consuming risky foods may also help you avoid other illnesses like: cholera, dysentery, traveler’s diarrhea and Hepatitis A.
When traveling to parts of the world where the disease is more prevalent, consider getting immunized for typhoid fever.
To give the vaccine time to take effect, you should get immunized at least 1-2 weeks before you travel, depending on the vaccine. The vaccines for typhoid fever wear off after several years. If you have been immunized before, ask your doctor if you may need a booster dose.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine
People travelling to or working in South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka and Bhutan for 3 weeks or more may need to get the vaccine. You are more likely to be exposed to contaminated food and water in these high risk areas.
If you are travelling to low risk areas, including Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, the travel clinic doctor or nurse will tell you if you should receive the vaccine.
The vaccine is also recommended for:
- Workers routinely exposed to typhoid bacteria, such as certain researchers and lab employees
- People who live in the same house or have sexual contact with a typhoid carrier
What Should I Avoid Before Or After Using Typhoid Vaccine
Avoid eating anything for at least 1 hour after you take a capsule.
Do not drink alcohol within 2 hours after you take a typhoid vaccine capsule. Alcohol can damage the capsule and could make the vaccine ineffective.
In addition to using this vaccine, take precautions while traveling to further prevent coming into contact with bacteria that cause typhoid fever:
Avoid eating leafy vegetables such as spinach or lettuce, which are harder to wash properly.
Avoid eating raw fruits or vegetables that cannot be peeled, or that have been peeled by another person.
Avoid drinks that contain ice, or frozen treats and flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water.
Avoid eating foods you have not cooked or prepared yourself. Use clean surfaces and utensils when preparing food.
Drink only bottled water or water that has been boiled for at least 1 minute.
Avoid any food or beverage purchased from a street vendor.
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Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada
- TYPHIM Vi® , Sanofi Pasteur SA , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- ViVAXIM® , Sanofi Pasteur SA , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- Vivotif® ,PaxVax Berna GmbH. , Crucell Vaccines Inc.
There are no authorized vaccines to protect against S. paratyphi infection .
For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canadas Drug Product Database.
Refer to Contents of Immunizing Agents Authorized for Use in Canada in Part 1 for a list of vaccines authorized for use in Canada and their contents.
Concurrent Administration With Other Vaccines
The administration of oral cholera and travellers diarrhea vaccine and Typh-O vaccine capsules should be separated by at least 8 hours Typh-O vaccine can be given concomitantly with or at any time before or after any parenteral vaccine. There is no known interaction between Typh-I vaccine and other travel vaccines, such as hepatitis A vaccine, yellow fever vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
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How Should I Use This Medicine
Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Take this medicine on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before food. Do not take with food. Do not cut, crush or chew this medicine.
A copy of Vaccine Information Statements will be given before each vaccination. Read this sheet carefully each time. The sheet may change frequently.
Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 6 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.
Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.
NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.
Is The Oral Typhoid Vaccine Safe
Studies conducted by public health organizations like the Centers for Disease Control show the oral typhoid vaccine is safe and effective.
Vivotif is approved for use in adults and children over the age of six. For more oral typhoid vaccination safety information, see Vivotifs vaccine information sheet. For full prescribing information, .
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Is Typhoid Fever Contagious
Typhoid fever is caused by bacteria spread from an infected person to a non-infected person, and is highly contagious. Its most often spread from an infected persons bacteria in the form of human waste. Then, if someone else eats food or drinks water thats been contaminated with that bacteria, they can become infected and develop typhoid fever.
What Causes Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with the fever caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria that causes typhoid are left in water or food by a human carrier, which is then spread to others who come in contact with the bacteria left behind.
Typhoid fever in the US has been mostly eradicated since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported annually. Today, less than 400 cases are reported each year in the US, and these mostly from travelers who have recently been to Mexico and South America, and to a lesser extent India, Pakistan and Egypt.
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What Is An Oral Typhoid Vaccine
The oral typhoid vaccine is a vaccination against typhoid given orally, through pills. Sometimes called, typhoid pills this vaccine provides longer protection than traditional injectable typhoid vaccines.
Vivotif is the only live oral typhoid vaccine available in the U.S.. The vaccine works with your body to protect you from typhoid bacteria in food, water or other sources. Because of typhoids prevalence, many travelers come in contact with the disease. But, an oral typhoid vaccine can help you travel safely.
What Is Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection transmitted by ingesting food and water that is contaminated with Salmonella typhi. It typically occurs in developing countries in South Asia and can be fatal in up to 10% of cases in low income regions. Humans are the sole carriers of the bacteria, and conditions such as poor sanitation, overcrowding, and trade and population movements can lead to an increased spread of the infection.
The symptoms of typhoid fever usually begin six to 30 days following exposure, and can range from high fever to abdominal pain and headaches. There are a number of first-line antibiotics to treat typhoid fever. Unfortunately resistance to these antibiotics has become an issue, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
The best method to prevent contraction of typhoid is through vaccination, personal hygiene, better hand washing techniques, and precautionary measures taken when preparing food and drinking water.
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Who Cannot Get A Typhoid Vaccination
It is important to know that both the oral and injectable forms of the typhoid vaccine are safe and effective. However, typhoid vaccine should not be given to the following groups of people:
- People who are allergic to it
- People who are taking antibiotics or malaria medications
- People with weakened immunity
- Pregnant women
Where Is It Found
Once universally prevalent, improved sanitation and higher standards of hygiene have meant that typhoid fever is now mostly a public health concern in resource-poor regions. Still, the WHO reports that between 11 and 20 million typhoid infections occur every year, resulting in more than 120,000 deaths.
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What Is This Medicine
TYPHOID ORAL VACCINE is used to prevent typhoid infection. The vaccine is recommended if you travel to parts of the world where typhoid is common.
This medicine may be used for other purposes ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.
COMMON BRAND NAME: Vivotif , Vivotif Berna
What Are The High
The risk of contracting typhoid infection significantly increases if you do any of the following:
- Reside with locals
- Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
- Intestinal perforation
Duration of typhoid symptoms
The duration of symptoms depends on the availability of proper early treatment. If the patient is adequately treated, the disease will resolve in six days, on average. Otherwise, infected persons may experience long-term severe disease with a high risk of complications and death .Up to 4% of patients develop asymptomatic chronic infection and continue to excrete bacteria in their stool for one year.
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Typhoid Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives difficult breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Becoming infected with typhoid fever is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
Common side effects include:
Who Should Not Get The Oral Vaccine
Speak with a travel clinic doctor or health care provider if you have:
- Had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of typhoid vaccine, or any component of the vaccine
- An immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment
- A stomach illness with nausea and vomiting
- Chronic inflammatory bowel disease or
- If you are pregnant
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Where To Get The Typhoid Fever Vaccine
Pharmaca has been providing immunization services recommended by the CDC for many years. We have locations in six states, and even offer some immunizations and vaccinations on a walk-in basis.
If youre traveling, or think you may be in a position to need a typhoid fever vaccination, to set up an appointment to get your next vaccine.
Thinking of getting a typhoid vaccination? to schedule an appointment.
How Is Typhoid Spread
The infection is transmitted through contaminated water and food.
Typhoid is more common in rural areas. However, those who visit cities can easily become infected too.
People get typhoid fever year-round, but there are some seasonal patterns that vary from region to region. Please see the table below.
- Staying with a local family
- Adventurous eating
- Eating food prepared or touched by a typhoid-positive person
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How Should I Take Typhoid Vaccine
Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Use the medicine exactly as directed.
The typhoid oral vaccine is given in a set of 4 capsules. Take 1 capsule every other day at the same time of the day, such as when you first wake up.
You will take a capsule every other day for 7 days. You will need to skip a day between capsules. Follow all instructions on the medicine package.
Take this medicine with a full glass of cool or lukewarm water. Avoid very hot or cold water, which could cause the capsule to dissolve too quickly.
Swallow the capsule as quickly as possible after placing it in your mouth.
Swallow the capsule whole and do not crush, chew, break, or open it.
Take the capsule on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before eating. Taking a capsule while there is food in your stomach could destroy the capsule and make the vaccine ineffective.
Take each capsule according to the recommended schedule or this vaccine may not be effective. Plan ahead so that you complete all doses at least 1 week before you enter a typhoid risk area. The timing of this vaccination is very important for it to be effective.
You must keep typhoid vaccine capsules cold. When you receive the capsules, place them in a refrigerator as soon as possible. Keep each capsule in the foil blister pack in the refrigerator until you are ready to take it. Do not allow the capsules to freeze.