Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
Nature Of The Disease
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterium is commonly known as meningococcus.
There are 13 known meningococcal serogroups, distinguished by differences in surface polysaccharides of the bacteriums outer membrane capsule. Globally, serogroups A, B, C, W-135 and Y most commonly cause disease.
Meningococcal Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Latest partial content update :
: The chapter has been updated to align with the National Advisory Committee on Immunization Statement : The Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for use in individuals 10 years of age and older in situations when a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine should be offered:
MenB-fHBP vaccine may be considered as an option for individuals 1025 years of age who are not at higher risk of meningococcal disease than the general population, but who wish to reduce their risk of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Last complete chapter revision: May 2015
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Are Free Or Low
Yes, if you dont have insurance or your insurance does not cover the cost of the meningococcal vaccines, you may be able to find free or low-cost meningococcal shots.
- Talk to your doctor or clinic to see if they participate in the Minnesota Vaccines for Children Program. If the person in need of vaccination is 18 years old or younger, they may be eligible for no-cost vaccines. However, there may be an administration fee of up to $21.22 per shot.
- Talk to your city or county health department. They may be able to provide low-cost meningococcal shots.
Which Meningitis Vaccination Do People Usually Get
The ACIP strongly recommends that all preteens between ages 11 and 12 get the single vaccine that protects against four types of meningitis: A, C, W, and Y. Because of this recommendation, these four meningitis illnesses are almost unseen in the US, Dr. Tan says.
Meningitis B is not unseen, however. Over 50% of all cases in the United States are caused by serogroup B. All college outbreaks since 2011 caused by serogroup B. Why are we not even mentioning men B? It doesnt make sense, Stillman says. Also alarming is that most colleges don’t require the meningitis B vaccination when a young person enrolls .
The ACIP used to give the meningitis B vaccine a category B recommendation, says Dr. Tan. This was opposed to the stronger category A recommendation. The ACIP started using different language in February 2018, and vaccines are no longer given category A or B recommendations by the ACIP.
A mistake was made by calling it category B. The label kind of carried, Dr. Tan says. Now, instead of labeling the meningitis B vaccines as category B, the ACIP says the vaccine should be administered based on clinical decision making.
Stillman adds that young people who receive only the meningitis A, C, W, Y vaccination are merely partially protected. She likens the question of Do you want your child to also receive the meningitis B vaccine? to Do you want them to be 100% protectedor just 80%?
What parent is going to say, No, thank you. Ill stick with 80?
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What Is Meningococcal Vaccine
Meningococcal vaccines are used to protect against meningococcal disease. Meningococcal disease can lead to serious illnesses, including meningitis and septicaemia . These illnesses can develop quickly over a few hours and can cause serious disability or even death, even among people who are otherwise healthy. Read more about meningococcal disease. During an outbreak of meningococcal disease, a meningococcal vaccination programme may be started to protect people at highest risk of getting or being affected by the infection. Meningococcal vaccines reduce the number of people carrying N. meningitidis bug in the back of their throat, thereby reducing the spread of the bacteria around the community.
Meningitis B Is A Rare But Very Serious Disease
As the Mayo Clinic explains, meningitis is inflammation of the membrane that surrounds your brain and spinal cord . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , meningitis B is caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. Illnesses caused by this bacteria are referred to broadly as meningococcal diseases.
The B in meningitis B refers to a serogroupa subtypeof N. meningitidis. The CDC notes that the five other serogroups that most commonly cause meningococcal disease are A, C, W, X, and Y.
The CDC explains that N. meningitidis already lives in the mouths and throats of about 10 percent of the population without causing any problems. It can be spread through spit and saliva, but is less contagious than viruses like the common cold or flu. It takes close, prolonged contact, e.g., kissing someone who is a meningitis B carrier, or being in the same room with them for a prolonged period of time while theyre coughing. Outbreaks are rare, but when they do occur, its often among people in cramped living conditions, such as army barracks or college dorms.
These are the main symptoms, as defined by the CDC, but this disease can often present in a more nuanced wayyou can read more about meningitis B symptoms here:
- A stiff neck
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Meningococcal B Vaccine: Frequently Asked Questions
In June 2015, the U. S. Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices provided a category B recommendation for both Men B vaccines, making the vaccine appropriate for individual clinical decision-making:
A serogroup B meningococcal vaccine series may be administered to adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. The preferred age for Men B vaccination is 16 through 18 years of age.3,4
This is not a category A or âroutineâ recommendation, so many health care providers and patients have questions about the vaccine. Below is a list of frequently asked questions that may assist with decision-making:
Should low risk patients aged 16 to 23 be advised to get one of the new Men B vaccines? There is no clear answer to that question. Persons aged 16 to 23 are at an increased risk of contracting meningococcal infections. However, the incidence of Men B disease is low and seems to be getting lower. There is limited information about the clinical efficacy and safety of the vaccines. This is one of the reasons the ACIP gave this recommendation a B rather than an A rating.3,4
Will immunizing populations decrease carriage of the meningococcal B bacteria? So far, limited studies have not shown a decrease of asymptomatic carriage in immunized populations. More studies are planned.4
Where can I get more information? More information is available at the CDC/ACIP website.
Types Of Meningitis Vaccines
The Food and Drug Administration has approved two types of meningitis vaccines. Both of these vaccines protect against bacterial meningitis, which is the most common type of meningitis.
They do not offer protection from viral meningitis, which is more common. The two types of vaccines differ based on what strains of bacteria they protect against.
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How Does Meningitis Spread
Each form of meningitis spreads differently. Viral and bacterial will spread person-to-person through air droplets, kissing or nasal secretions. Fungal and parasitic are ususally cause by environmental factors.
Viral and bacterial are the most common variants. They are most often spread within communities that live or work together. Dorm living, close contact and shared facilities are some common risk areas.
Some regions of the world are at an increased risk for meningitis. These include the meningitis belt in Africa and Saudi Arabia during the Hajj.
Vaccines And Immunization: What Is Vaccination
Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your bodys natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.
Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when its exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.
Most vaccines are given by an injection, but some are given orally or sprayed into the nose.
Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your bodys natural defenses to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. It:
Recognizes the invading germ, such as the virus or bacteria.
Produces antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced naturally by the immune system to fight disease.
Remembers the disease and how to fight it. If you are then exposed to the germ in the future, your immune system can quickly destroy it before you become unwell.
The vaccine is therefore a safe and clever way to produce an immune response in the body, without causing illness.
If you have missed any recommended vaccinations for you or your child, talk to your healthcare worker about catching up.
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Simultaneous Administration With Other Vaccines
Men-C-C and 4CMenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines, and Men-C-ACYW vaccine may be administered concomitantly with adolescent and adult age appropriate vaccines. MenB-fHBP can be given concomitantly with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine meningococcal serogroup A, C, Y, W conjugate vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed. The concomitant administration of MenB-fHBP has not been studied with other vaccines.
Men-C-ACYW-CRM can be administered with routine paediatric vaccines however, further studies are needed with regard to concomitant administration with pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine. Co-administration of Men-C-ACYW-CRM and combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine may result in a lower immune response to the pertussis antigens than when Tdap vaccine is given alone however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Tdap vaccine given one month after Men-C-ACYW-CRM induces the strongest immunologic response to pertussis antigens.
If vaccines are to be administered concomitantly with another vaccine, a separate injection site and a different syringe must be used for each injection.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional general information.
What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccine
Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.
You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.
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How Are Cvs Pharmacy And Minuteclinic Different
At the pharmacy, vaccinations for adolescents through seniors are administered by certified immunizationâtrained pharmacist. Age and state restrictions apply. No appointment necessary.
At MinuteClinic, vaccinations for children through seniors are administered by a nurse practicioner. View wait times and schedule a visit online, or walk in anytime.
CVS Pharmacy and MinuteClinic also at Target
How Do Meningococcal Bacteria Spread
Meningococcal disease is caused by 13 different groups of meningococcal bacteria.
In the UK, the disease is almost always caused by 1 of 4 meningococcal groups commonly known as MenB, MenC, MenW or MenY. These can be prevented with vaccination.
MenA disease is rare in the UK, but it’s more common in other parts of the world. It can also be prevented by vaccination.
The meningococcal bacteria live in the back of the nose and throat in about 1 in 10 people without causing any symptoms or illness.
Older teenagers are most likely to carry and spread the meningococcal bacteria.
The bacteria are spread from person to person by prolonged close contact such as coughing, kissing or sneezing with someone who is carrying the bacteria.
Very occasionally, the meningococcal bacteria can cause serious illness, including meningitis and septicaemia, which can rapidly lead to sepsis.
Meningococcal infections can happen at any age, but babies, young children and teenagers are especially vulnerable.
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Routine Menacwy Vaccination Of Adolescents
All 11 to 12 year olds should receive a meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Since protection wanes, CDC recommends a booster dose at age 16 years. The booster dose provides protection during the ages when adolescents are at highest risk of meningococcal disease.
- For adolescents who receive the first dose at age 13 through 15 years, administer a booster dose at age 16 through 18 years, before the period of increased risk.
- Adolescents who receive their first dose of MenACWY vaccine at or after age 16 years do not need a booster dose.
- Adolescents who are at increased risk due to medical conditions need a 2-dose primary series of MenACWY vaccine administered 8 weeks apart, as well as regular booster doses every 5 years.
- CDC also recommends a booster dose for those at increased risk due to an outbreak if 5 or more years have passed since receiving MenACWY.
Why The Meningitis B Vaccine Is Used
There are many reasons that the meningitis B vaccine was developed and why you would want to protect yourself and those you love against it.
Meningitis B is a serious disease that progresses quickly and can lead to death. The mortality rate from meningitis B in the United States is about 10 to 15 percent when treated and up to 50 percent when untreated. Its also possible to develop long-term conditions such as hearing loss or even brain damage after recovering from meningitis B.
The MenB bacterial infection is passed between people through saliva and respiratory fluids. Activities like sharing drinks, kissing, or coughing can spread the bacterium. The meningitis B vaccine can help reduce transmission between people and prevent or manage outbreaks.
Unlike many diseases, meningitis B is most common in young people. Infants and young children are at the highest risk. Adolescents and young adults are at the next highest risk of infection.
Between 2013 and 2018, meningococcal disease outbreaks occurred at 10 universities and led to two deaths. All 10 universities implemented MenB vaccination to prevent further spread.
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People With Medical Conditions That Increase Their Risk Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease
People with medical conditions specified in List. Specified medical conditions associated with increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease are strongly recommended to receive MenACWY and MenB vaccines.
- a full primary course of MenACWY vaccine, with ongoing booster doses
- a full primary course of MenB vaccine
People with these specific medical conditions have a higher risk of invasive meningococcal disease. They are recommended to receive extra doses compared with people who do not have these conditions.
The number of doses needed depends on the vaccine brand used and the persons age when they start the vaccine course.
For people aged 2 years receiving MenACWY vaccine, it is preferable to receive either Menveo or Nimenrix, rather than Menactra. If Menveo and Nimenrix are unavailable, Menactra can be given.
There is no preference for either Bexsero or Trumenba for people aged 10 years. For people aged < 10 years, Bexsero is the only registered MenB vaccine available in Australia.
Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable. The same vaccine should be used for both vaccine doses.
Regular booster doses are required for MenACWY vaccines, but not for MenB vaccines.
For more details see:
People who have previously received a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
They should receive the 1st dose of MenACWY conjugate vaccine about 2 years after the most recent dose of 4vMenPV, with a recommended minimum interval of 6 months.1-3
Know How To Get Medical Care While Traveling
Plan for how you will get health care during your trip, should the need arise:
- Carry a list of local doctors and hospitals at your destination.
- Review your health insurance plan to determine what medical services it would cover during your trip. Consider purchasing travel health and medical evacuation insurance.
- Carry a card that identifies, in the local language, your blood type, chronic conditions or serious allergies, and the generic names of any medications you take.
- Some prescription drugs may be illegal in other countries. Call Ugandas embassy to verify that all of your prescription are legal to bring with you.
- Bring all the medicines you think you might need during your trip, including extra in case of travel delays. Ask your doctor to help you get prescriptions filled early if you need to.
Many foreign hospitals and clinics are accredited by the Joint Commission International. A list of accredited facilities is available at their website .
In some countries, medicine may be substandard or counterfeit. Bring the medicines you will need from the United States to avoid having to buy them at your destination.
Malaria is a risk in Uganda. Fill your malaria prescription before you leave and take enough with you for the entire length of your trip. Follow your doctors instructions for taking the pills some need to be started before you leave.
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