Tuesday, May 30, 2023

Which Meningococcal Vaccine For College Students

Are Free Or Low

Meningitis Vaccination Required for Incoming College Students

Yes, if you don’t have insurance or your insurance does not cover the cost of the meningococcal vaccines, you may be able to find free or low-cost meningococcal shots. Note that there may still be an administration fee of up to $21.22 per shot.

  • If you are 18 years old or younger: Talk to your doctor or clinic to see if they participate in the Minnesota Vaccines for Children Program.
  • If you are 19 years old or older: Go to Vaccination Clinics Serving Uninsured and Underinsured Adults to search for a clinic near you that offers low-cost vaccines for eligible adults.

Special Considerations For Use Of Menactra For People With Functional Or Anatomic Asplenia Or Hiv

Children with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® before the age of 2 years. This timing avoids interference with the immunologic response to the infant series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . CDC recommends infants 2 through 23 months of age with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV receive Menveo®.

People 2 years of age or older with functional or anatomic asplenia or HIV should not receive Menactra® at the same time as PCV. They should either receive Menveo® or MenQuadfi® when they get PCV or wait and receive Menactra® 4 weeks after completion of all PCV doses.

Colleges Can Benefit From Using The Iis:

  • Streamline immunization records for providers, schools, and consumers
  • Reduce unnecessary paperwork and missed opportunities to vaccinate
  • Use clinical decision support tools to forecast upcoming vaccines due
  • Follow the recommended vaccines and schedules of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
  • Perform electronic data exchange with electronic health records
  • Support immunization verification during outbreaks

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What Are The Risks From Meningococcal Vaccines

Most people have mild side effects from the vaccine, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. A vaccine, like any medicine, may cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. This risk is extremely small. Getting the meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease.

You can learn more on the Vaccine Information Statements for meningococcal ACWY and meningococcal B.

Recommendations For Use Of Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine In College Students

Are you protected against Meningitis B? » Student Health Care Center ...

College freshmen, particularly those who live in dormitories, are at modestlyincreased risk for meningococcal disease relative to other persons their age.Vaccination with the currently available quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccinewill decrease the risk for meningococcal disease among such persons. Vaccinationdoes not eliminate risk because a) the vaccine confers no protection against serogroupB disease and b) although the vaccine is highly effective against serogroups C, Y,W-135, and A, efficacy is < 100%.

The risk for meningococcal disease among college students is low therefore,vaccination of all college students, all freshmen, or only freshmen who live in dormitoriesor residence halls is not likely to be cost-effective for society as a whole. Thus, ACIPis issuing the following recommendations regarding the use of meningococcalpolysaccharide vaccines for college students.

Additional Considerations about Vaccination ofCollege Students

Although the need for revaccination of older children has not beendetermined, antibody levels decline rapidly over 2–3 years. Revaccination may be considered for freshmen who were vaccinated more than 3–5 years earlier. Routine revaccination of college students who were vaccinated as freshmen is not indicated.

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Common Questions About Meningitis

Meningococcal disease is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a common bacterium. Sometimes these bacteria invade the body to infect the lining of the brain or the bloodstream .

This invasive disease is sometimes fatal unless recognized and treated promptly. Brain damage, hearing loss, loss of limbs, or kidney failure can also occur. Meningococcal disease is relatively rare, occurring at a rate of less than 1 in 100,000 people in the United States.

Everyone is potentially at risk, but college freshmen living in dormitories have an increased risk of developing meningococcal disease compared with other college students. For this reason, it is important for students to become familiar with meningococcal disease and get vaccinated against it before they come to college.

Meningococcal bacteria are spread from person-to-person by direct contact with an infected persons oral or nasal secretions.

While the bacteria may be spread through close and direct contact with an infected persons saliva, such as by sharing cups or eating utensils, this disease is not spread through the air, in food or water, or by casual contact in bathrooms, classrooms, restaurants, bars, or other social settings.

Meningococcal disease can cause an individual to become very ill, very quickly. Symptoms may include:

  • High fever
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Vomiting or rashes may also occur
Additional Resources

Why Do I Have To Do This

Missouri Revised Statute 174.335 went into effect on August 28, 2014:

174.335. 1. Beginning with the 2004-05 school year and for each school year thereafter, every public institution of higher education in this state shall require all students who reside in on-campus housing to have received the meningococcal vaccine unless a signed statement of medical or religious exemption is on file with the institution’s administration. A student shall be exempted from the immunization requirement of this section upon signed certification by a physician licensed under chapter 334 indicating that either the immunization would seriously endanger the student’s health or life or the student has documentation of the disease or laboratory evidence of immunity to the disease. A student shall be exempted from the immunization requirement of this section if he or she objects in writing to the institution’s administration that immunization violates his or her religious beliefs.

2. Each public university or college in this state shall maintain records on the meningococcal vaccination status of every student residing in on-campus housing at the university or college.

3. Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring any institution of higher education to provide or pay for vaccinations against meningococcal disease.

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Are Students Required To Get Meningococcal Vaccine Before College

Yes. Massachusetts law requires the following students receive quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine :

  • Secondary School : newly enrolled full-time students who will be living in a dormitory or other congregate housing licensed or approved by the secondary school must provide documentation of having received a dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine at any time in the past.
  • Postsecondary Institutions : newly enrolled full-time students 21 years of age and younger must provide documentation of having received a dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine on or after their 16th birthday, regardless of housing status.

Immunizations should be obtained prior to enrollment or registration however, students may be enrolled or registered provided that the required immunizations are obtained within 30 days of registration. There is no requirement for meningococcal B vaccination. However, adolescents and young adults may also be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection for most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease.

More information about requirements and exemptions may be found in the MDPH document Information about Meningococcal Disease, Meningococcal Vaccines, Vaccination Requirements and the Waiver for Students at Colleges and Residential Schools.

Shouldnt Meningococcal B Vaccine Be Required

Meningococcus Vaccine – Why Do College Students Need It?

CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has reviewed the available data regarding serogroup B meningococcal disease and the vaccines. At the current time, there is no routine recommendation and no statewide requirement for meningococcal B vaccination before going to college . As noted previously, adolescents and young adults may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, preferably at 16 through 18 years of age, to provide short term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This would be a decision between a healthcare provider and a patient. These policies may change as new information becomes available.

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What Is Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal disease is a serious illness caused by a bacterium. It can cause meningitis, which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord, and it can also cause blood infections. The infection can cause death or lifelong disability.

About 375 people get the disease each year, and about 10 to 15 out of 100 people infected with meningococcal disease die. Of those who survive, up to one out of five have permanent disabilities, such as deafness, brain damage, loss of limbs, or seizures.

A person with meningococcal disease may become seriously ill very quickly. Antibiotics can treat meningococcal infections, but often can’t be given soon enough to help.

Cdc Does Not Routinely Recommend Menb Vaccination For All Adolescents

Vaccine providers may choose to administer a MenB vaccine to adolescents and young adults 16 through 23 years of age. The preferred age at which to administer the vaccine is 16 through 18 years old.

Together, clinicians and patients or their parents can determine if MenB vaccination is appropriate for them. Clinicians, parents, teens, and young adults may want to consider the following when making this decision:

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Who Should Get Meningococcal Vaccines

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine recommended for all children aged 11 to 12 years, with a booster shot at 16 years of age. Babies, young children, and adults at high risk should also get this vaccine.

People should get MenACWY vaccine if they fall into these high-risk categories:

  • Have a rare type of autoimmune disorder
  • Are taking the medicine called eculizumab
  • Have asplenia , including people who have asplenia due to sickle cell disease
  • Have HIV
  • For more information, see the CDC Travelers’ Health website
  • Are at increased risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak
  • Are a microbiologist who is routinely exposed to the bacteria in a lab
  • Are a first year college student AND Are not up to date with this vaccine
  • Are a military recruit
  • People who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease should get revaccinated every five years with MenACWY as long as the person remains at increased risk. This is because protection from the vaccine decreases within five years.

    Travelers to some countries should get the MenACWY vaccine. Countries include those in sub-Saharan Africa and Saudi Arabia during Hajj . It takes 7 to 10 days to develop protection after receiving the vaccine. For the best protection on your trip, see a healthcare provider or clinic as soon as possible before travel.

    People should get MenB vaccine if they:

    Menb Vaccines Are Safe

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    Available data show that MenB vaccines are safe. Side effects like pain at the injection site, fever, and headache are common. These side effects usually resolve on their own within 3 to 5 days after vaccination. MenB vaccines are more reactogenic than other adolescent vaccines . They are likely to produce common or expected short-term side effects . There have been no unusual patterns of serious reactions associated with these vaccines.

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    Who Should Get The Meningococcal Vaccines

    The MenACWY vaccine is recommended for college freshman living in a dormitory. The vaccine has been recommended for 11-12 year olds since 2005, so it is possible that incoming freshmen have already received a dose. If you received a dose before age 16, you should get a booster before you go to college.

    Menacwy Vaccine Mandates For Colleges And Universities

    Return to State Mandates on Immunization main page
    An empty box in this table indicates a “NO” answer


    Proof of vaccination or waiver required? Implementation date
    all incoming freshmen residing on campus yes
    all incoming students residing on campus yes
    yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment 1/1/2017
    all students residing on campus yes
    all incoming students residing on campus or in fraternity/sorority houses yes
    first year students living in on-campus housing yes
    all incoming students under 21 years of age yes
    all incoming students residing on campus yes
    all incoming students residing on campus yes
    full-time health science residential students yes
    newly enrolled full-time students & age < 21 yrs yes vax at > 16 yrs SY 2018-19
    all students residing on campus yes
    all incoming freshmen < 23 yrs yes
    all students with 6 sem hrs or 4 qtr hrs yes
    all incoming students < 21 yrs and residing in campus housing yes
    all incoming students residing in campus housing yes
    all students residing in dorm or housing unit yes
    all incoming first-year students < 22 yrs residing on campus yes
    yes, within 5 yrs of enrollment 1/14/2019
    all first year students residing on campus yes
    all incoming full time students yes
    If you have updated information concerning this table, please call 647-9009 or email . This table was compiled by the Immunization Action Coalition using information provided by state health departments.

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    Healthy Infants And Children

    One dose of Men-C-C vaccine is recommended in unimmunized children less than 5 years of age. One dose of Men-C-C vaccine may be considered for children 5 to 11 years of age if they have not previously been immunized as infants or toddlers. Immunization with 4CMenB vaccine or MenB-fHBP may be considered on an individual basis, depending on individual preferences, regional serogroup B epidemiology and strain susceptibility.

    What Are The Side Effects From The Meningococcal Vaccines

    Ohio students required to receive the meningococcal vaccine for 2016-2017 school year

    With any vaccine, there is the potential of a severe allergic reaction within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot. But the likelihood that the meningococcal vaccines would cause a severe reaction is extremely slight.

    About one out of every two people who get the shot experience mild reactions such as redness or a mild pain where the shot was given. Those usually go away in one to two days. A small percentage of people develop a mild fever.

    There have been reports that a few people have been diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome after receiving MCV4. But experts say it occurs so rarely that it’s not possible to tell if it’s related to the vaccine or coincidental.

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    Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

    Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.

    Students Under 22 Years Of Age Who Will Take Any Face

    Documentation must be submitted at least 10 days prior to the student’s first in-person class.

    Effective Jan. 1, 2014, state law requires students who will be under age 22 on their first day of class at a public, private or independent institution of higher education in Texas to provide proof of immunization for bacterial meningitis. The vaccination or booster dose must have been received during the five years prior to enrollment and at least ten days before the start of classes.

    Students who have been previously enrolled at Texas State and are enrolling following a break in enrollment of at least one fall or spring semester will be subject to the vaccination requirement. Students transferring from another institution of higher education will also be subject to the vaccination requirement.

    Texas State requires you to meet this requirement before you will be allowed to register for classes.

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    Are Both Meningococcal Vaccines Equally Effective

    The MCV4, MPSV4 and MenB vaccines are about 85-90% effective in preventing meningococcal disease. There are actually several types of N meningitidis — the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease, five of which are common in the U.S. These vaccines together protect against all five of these strains.

    MCV4 has not been available long enough to compare the long-term effectiveness of the two vaccines. But most experts think that MCV4 provides better, longer-lasting protection.

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    “Each patient will have a different situation, and their medical records can bring them up to date. Overall, the ones I’d emphasize are meningitis and hepatitis B.”

    “Almost every college requires or strongly recommends students be vaccinated for meningitis, especially if they plan to live in the dorms. Close quarters make it easier for bacteria to spread.”

    “Hepatitis B is a blood-borne infection, but can also be transmitted through sexual activity. The disease can have long-term liver consequences. The hepatitis B vaccine is a three-dose series, and might be among the safest vaccines ever made.”

    “I would also recommend the combined tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine.”

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    How Is Meningococcal Disease Spread And Who Is Most At Risk

    Meningococcal disease is not as contagious as other illnesses, such as a cold or the flu. But it is spread by contact with infected respiratory and throat secretions. That can happen with coughing, kissing, or sneezing.

    Because the risk increases with close or prolonged contact with an infected person, family members in the same household and caregivers are at an increased risk. For the same reason, so are college students who live in dormitories.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Meningococcal Disease

    Signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include sudden onset of fever, stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or mental confusion. A rash may also be present. Changes in behavior such as confusion, sleepiness, and unresponsiveness are important symptoms of illness. Anyone who has these symptoms should be seen by a healthcare provider immediately. In fatal cases, death can occur in as little as a few hours, even with appropriate medical treatment. Less common presentations include pneumonia and arthritis.

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