What Parents Should Know About Newborn Tests And Vaccinations
Vitamin K and eye ointment and vaccinations oh my!
Your newborn likely will get all of these shortly after birth. Surprised? If so, youre not alone. Many new parents are unaware of how many tests and treatments their newborns will receive.
Before you start to panic when a doctor gives your brand new baby a shot in the thigh, learn why these medications and vaccinations are important and some of the evidence behind the recommendations. Lets take a look at what tests and shots to expect late in pregnancy, in the delivery room, and before you take your little one home.
What Diseases Do Vaccines Prevent
Vaccines protect your child against serious illnesses like polio, which can cause paralysis measles, which can cause brain swelling and blindness and tetanus, which can cause painful muscle contractions and difficulty eating and breathing, especially in newborns. For a list of the most common vaccines and the diseases they prevent, see this list of the most common vaccines and the diseases they prevent.
Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccine In Pregnancy
The Ontario publicly funded immunization program was recently expanded to include routine vaccination in every pregnancy for protection against pertussis. A dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis containing vaccine can be received in each pregnancy for free as part of the publicly funded immunization program. Vaccination is safe and helps protect you and your baby.
Pertussis or whooping cough is a serious disease especially in young children. Pertussis can cause serious complications. Pneumonia can occur in more than two out of 10 children with pertussis. Pertussis can also cause brain damage, seizures and death. These complications happen most often in babies. Pertussis spreads very easily from an infected person to others through coughing or sneezing.
For more information talk to your primary care provider, contact your local Public Health Unit or visit ontario.ca/vaccines.
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Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks
Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza and COVID-19 viruses, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.
Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.
Does The Hepatitis B Vaccine Have Side Effects
Some children will develop pain or soreness in the local area of the shot, and low-grade fever.
There is one extremely rare, but serious, side effect. About 1 out of every 600,000 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine will cause a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, with symptoms including swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure or shock. Anaphylaxis usually occurs within 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Although anaphylaxis can be treated, it is quite frightening. People should remain at the doctors office for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.
Although the hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells, no one has ever been shown to be allergic to the yeast proteins contained in the hepatitis B vaccine .
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Tips For New Parents Out There
- The journey of parenthood is exciting but it sure does come with a whole lot of responsibilities. Youll almost always be on your toes juggling baby duties, with life around you moving at a pace faster than you had imagined. Thats why it becomes even more important for you to find new solutions to help with your parental duties.
- Amongst everything, one aspect that you have to pay some special attention to is your childs health. And your childs vaccinations, without a doubt, are extremely important for their wellbeing.
- You dont need to feel stressed about missing an appointment or running around for your pediatrician at the last moment. Theres an app that can truly help you all along. The ImmunifyMe App is a one-stop platform for all your childs health needs as it not only keeps a digitized copy of your childs health records but also sends you timely notifications for any of your childs upcoming vaccines.
- Your newborn is too small to understand the concept of vaccinations. Nevertheless, its still not going to be an easy process for them. As a parent, you need to be patient and extra supportive of your child even after they get their shots.
- Keep in mind that every child may react differently to the vaccine. Make sure you consult your pediatrician beforehand with any doubts or concerns. Know about vaccine precautions and what to expect so you can better prepare yourself.
Is It Mandatory To Vaccinate A Newborn
Yes, there are some vaccines that are mandatory for every newborn in India to take. The National Immunization Schedule mentions the necessary vaccines that your child needs and the age-wise timings as well. Vaccinations are important to protect your child from viruses out there, so you ideally shouldnt miss your childs vaccination as far as possible.
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Measles Mumps And Rubella Vaccine
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – given at 12 months
The MMR vaccine is a three-in-one needle that protects against measles, mumps and rubella . It should be given to children soon after their first birthday and a second dose at 4-6 years of age with the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.
Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
This vaccine should also be given to adults who are not protected against measles, mumps or rubella. Pregnant women who have been told that they are not protected against rubella, should receive MMR vaccine as soon as they are no longer pregnant.
What is measles?
Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.
Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.
What is mumps?
What is rubella ?
What Vaccines Are Given In Childhood
Following is a list of pediatric vaccines given in childhood in the United States :
Hepatitis B virus vaccine
The hepatitis B virus vaccine is primarily given in three-dose series, though there are exceptions. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth in medically stable infants born to HBV negative mothers. HBV vaccine is also given to high-risk populations and as a travel vaccine.
Two HBV vaccines are available in the US:
- Engerix-B: A four-dose series given at birth, and ages one, two and 12 months.
- Recombivax HB: A two-dose series for children of age 11-15 years.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are given in two-dose or three-dose primary vaccination, plus a booster. The PCV available in the US is:
- Prevnar-13: Contains antigens of 13 strains of pneumococci.
Varicella virus vaccine
The varicella virus vaccine is a weakened live vaccine that protects against Varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles. In the United States, VAR is recommended for all children under 13 who have not had the infection, as well as adolescents and adults who lack immunity to it. The varicella virus vaccine available in the US is:
- Varivax: Given as two-dose series.
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine
The measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is used as a combination vaccine for children. The MMR vaccine available in the US is:
- M-M-R II: Given in two doses with the first one in 15-18 months and a second dose at four to six years of age.
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Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccine
Tdap is a three-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis.
Immunization against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is pertussis?
For more information talk to your health care provider, contact your local Public Health Unit or visit ontario.ca/vaccines.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
What To Expect After Baby Gets Shots
Mild fever, fussiness, and pain at the injection site are common side effects your child may experience after a vaccine. Do make sure to give your child extra care and attention after they take their shot they might be cranky and would reach out for your support. Some babies also tend to sleep more or eat less after getting their shots. These effects might vary with every child, so its best to consult your doctor about the same.
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Recommended Childhood Vaccines For Ages 11 To 12 Years Old
The immunizations that are recommended at this age are for diseases that teens and young adults are at higher risk for plus one booster dose to strengthen immunity for three diseases. Your childs annual wellness visit or back-to-school checkup is the perfect time to get these vaccines.
An overview of immunizations for kids ages 11 to 12 years old
- Tdap At this age, this immunization is whats commonly referred to as a booster shot because it boosts your childs tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis immunity. While related to the DTaP vaccine kids receive during childhood, this vaccine is formulated for adolescents and adults.
- MenACWY The first of two meningococcal vaccine doses is recommended sometime between 11 and 12 years old. This vaccine protects against the most common types of meningococcal bacteria that affect adolescents.
- HPV While in some cases doctors may recommend the human papillomavirus vaccine as early as age 9, this vaccine is routinely recommended to begin between 11 and 12 years old. If the initial vaccination is completed before age 14, just two doses are needed. The second dose should be completed 6 to 12 months after the first dose.
How Many Vaccines Do Children Get
By the age of 15 months, your baby may receive up to 10 different types of vaccines. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all healthy babies receive these initial vaccines. Your child may receive additional doses and other vaccines between the ages of 15 months and 16 years old. If your child has a chronic condition or a weakened immune system, their pediatrician may recommend a different schedule.
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Baby Vaccine Schedule: Recommended Immunizations For Children Ages 0 To 18 Months
When do babies get their first shots? Staying on track with childhood immunizations starts early, with immunizations beginning at birth and coinciding with baby and child wellness schedules.
Remember, baby and child vaccination schedules are made with young immune systems in mind. If you have specific questions about when or why specific vaccines are recommended for your newborn baby, infant or toddler, talk with your childs doctor.
An overview of immunizations for newborns to 18-month-olds
Gonorrhea And Chlamydia Test
Some Ob/Gyn practices recommend routine testing at 32 weeks for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Texas is among the states with the highest rate of these sexually transmitted diseases. You may not even know you have these diseases because they dont always present with symptoms. However, the diseases can be passed to the baby during delivery and can cause an infection called ophthalmia neonatorum that may lead to blindness.
If you have been in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship, you may feel comfortable declining this test. There is a chance the test will return a false-positive result, meaning it may show you have one of these diseases when you actually dont. Remember this before you panic that your partner is cheating on you.
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Babies Who Should Not Have The 6
Most babies can have the 6-in-1 vaccine, but there are a few that should not, for example, those who:
- are allergic to the vaccine
- have a high temperature at the time of the vaccination appointment wait until they’ve recovered
- have a neurological problem thats getting worse, including poorly controlled epilepsy wait until theyve been seen by a specialist
The 6-in-1 vaccine should not be given to babies who have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine, or a reaction to any part of the vaccine that may be present in trace amounts, such as neomycin, streptomycin or polymixin B.
There’s no need to postpone vaccination if your baby has a minor illness, such as a cough or a cold with no temperature.
If your baby has a history of fits or has had a fit within 72 hours of a previous dose of the vaccine, speak to your GP surgery, nurse or health visitor for advice.
How Does Immunisation Work
Immunisation is a simple, safe and effective way to protect children against certain diseases. The serious health risks of these diseases are far greater than the very small risks of immunisation.
Immunisation protects children against harmful infections before they come into contact with them in the community.
It uses the bodys natural defence mechanism the immune system to build resistance to specific infections. Generally it takes about 2 weeks after vaccination for the immune system to respond fully.
Vaccination is the term used for getting a vaccine that is, getting the injection or taking an oral vaccine dose. Immunisation refers to the process of both getting the vaccine and becoming immune to the disease after vaccination.
Learn more about the difference between vaccination and immunisation.
Vaccines for babies and young children are funded under the Department of Health’s National Immunisation Program.
In Australia, babies and children are immunised against the following diseases:
The hepatitis A vaccine is free for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in high-risk areas .
Children aged 6 months to under 5 years can have the flu vaccine for free each year. It is available in autumn. Children aged 12 to 13 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus through their schools.
Most vaccines recommended in the program are given by injection. Some combine several vaccines in the one injection.
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Study Setting And Design
This open-label randomized schedule trial took place at Kilifi District Hospital among residents of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System area, a rural population of 240000 on the coast of Kenya . Women attending antenatal clinic in their last trimester who had negative results on an HIV test were encouraged to enroll their children at birth. Neonates delivered at Kilifi District Hospital were enrolled within 24 hours of birth those born at home were included up to 72 hours following delivery. Exclusion criteria were as follows: temporary residence in the KHDSS area participation in another trial suspected immune deficiency congenital abnormality sickness requiring hospitalization birth weight < 2500 g heart rate > 150 or < 100/minute respiratory rate > 60 or < 35/minute axilla temperature of > 37.5° or < 35.5°C. The birth weight threshold excluded 20% of all newborns and was therefore reduced to 2000 g after 199 babies had been recruited.
Participants were divided evenly into 8 groups on 3 criteria in a factorial design: Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccine schedule, compared with newborn schedule additional blood sampling at 10 weeks, compared with 14 weeks and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine , compared with PCV booster. Three hundred allocations were designated at the outset, and each participant was assigned a group at enrolment by automatic computer application of a random number to all residual allocations.
What Should I Do If My Child Is Behind On Their Vaccination Schedule
Dont worry. There are catch-up recommendations in place. But since each vaccine has its own guidelines, talk with your childs doctor to make a plan for getting back on schedule. They can talk with you about your childs medical and immunization history, give you more information on specific vaccines and catch-up guidelines, and discuss any concerns or questions you may have.
Does your child need catch-up vaccinations? Dont delay.
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