Monday, June 5, 2023

Which Vaccine Is The Most Effective

Will A Booster Shot Be Needed

Which Covid-19 vaccine is most effective?

So far, there has been no recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surrounding booster shots with the Delta variant.

Still, health experts have repeatedly cautioned that COVID-19 booster shots could be needed for fully vaccinated people, particularly as new variants spread.

White House chief advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci said during an interview with MSNBC’s Medhi Hasan in April that people may need to get booster shots in a year.

Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla also previously said people will “likely” need a third dose within 12 months of getting fully vaccinated.

So far, studies suggest that the vaccines currently in use can recognize the emerging variants but they may not provide quite as much protection against the new strains.

Boosters and new versions of vaccines that target the variants are already being explored.

Pfizer-BioNTech was previously testing a third booster shot of its vaccine on fully vaccinated people.

“The flexibility of our proprietary mRNA vaccine platform allows us to technically develop booster vaccines within weeks, if needed,” Sahin said in a release in February.

Moderna was also testing a potential third dose of its current vaccine, and a possible booster shot specifically targeting the South Africa variant. Citing early data, the company recently said the booster vaccine generated a promising immune response against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants first identified in South Africa and Brazil, respectively.

Why Get The Covid

Sandra Trevino, LCSW, is a founding member of Yales Cultural Ambassadors programa 10-year-old organization whose mission is to broaden community participation in clinical trials at the Yale Center for Clinical Investigationand is doubling her efforts to help educate people about COVID-19 vaccines.

In December, the Kaiser Family Foundation released results of a survey in which more than one-quarter of Americans said they would probably or definitely not get the vaccine. Republicans, and rural and Black Americans were most hesitant, according to the survey.

Its a great responsibility to make sure we continue to address the elephant in the room, which is mistrust with regard to the vaccines, says Trevino.

In a recent interview, she explained why shes encouraging everyone to get the COVID-19 vaccine and talked about her own familys experience with COVID-19.

How Effective Are The Vaccines Against The New Delta Variant

Data surrounding vaccine effectiveness with the Delta variant is so far limited.

While studies have shown that the available vaccines work against variants, including the Delta variant, all two-dose vaccines offer significantly more protection following their second dose.

Researchers in England studied how effective the two-dose AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines were against it, compared with the Alpha variant that was first detected in the U.K.

The vaccines were protective for those who got both doses but were less so among those who got one dose.

One recent study showed the Pfizer vaccine was 84% effective against the variant after two doses, but only 34% effective after the first dose.

Moderna also announced Tuesday that a new study showed its vaccine also produced promising protection in a lab setting against the Delta variant and others currently circulating.

As we seek to defeat the pandemic, it is imperative that we are proactive as the virus evolves. We remain committed to studying emerging variants, generating data and sharing it as it becomes available. These new data are encouraging and reinforce our belief that the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine should remain protective against newly detected variants, Stéphane Bancel, chief executive officer of Moderna, said in a statement.

Dr. Scott Gottlieb, former Food and Drug Administration commissioner, reportedly said the Johnson & Johnson vaccine appears to be about 60% effective against the Delta variant.

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Successes And Failures Of Non

Successful non-replicating/inactivated vaccines have been licensed for 11 different pathogens and include both viruses and bacteria . As described below, the hepatitis A virus vaccine represents a striking success for whole-virion inactivated vaccines, with exceptional efficacy and long-term antibody persistence demonstrated for up to 20 years post-vaccination . The HPV vaccine utilizes advanced VLP technology and is able to protect against chronic viral infection, prevent HPV-associated cancers, and potentially induce life-long immunity with as few as two doses or even a single immunization . In contrast to these success stories, unsuccessful attempts to develop formaldehyde-inactivated measles and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines in the 1960s indicate that an inactivated whole-virus vaccine approach is not foolproof and several factors may have contributed to those failures .

Immune Activation: Advantage Moderna

Israel leads vaccine race with 12% given jab  News784

The slight differences between the vaccines behavior in the inoculated could suggest a more robust immune response to Modernas vaccine. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are comparing the vaccines by measuring recipients levels of antibodies that bind to the viruss spike protein, a measure which correlates with levels of neutralizing antibodies and protection against a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

For instance, in the spring of 2021, a research team in a clinic in northeast Belgium decided to measure the antibody levels of the clinics health care workers following vaccination. Line Heylen, medical doctor at the Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg who was involved in this study, says that the main motivation was to look at whether there were any individuals not developing immunity, to maybe consider a booster for them. Initially, comparing the two vaccines received by the 1,647 participants wasnt the goal. But their analysis, published August 30, did find differences in performance between Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech. Six to ten weeks after the second dose, patients who received Modernas vaccine had significantly higher concentrations of anti-spike antibodies.

Six to ten weeks after the second dose, patients who received Modernas vaccine had significantly higher concentrations of anti-spike antibodies.

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The Mrna Jabs Seem Bestbut All Offer Protection

THE RESULTS OF the first trial that showed that a vaccine could prevent symptomatic cases of covid-19, in November 2020, were greeted by the media with delight. As Nature put it: It works!. But the emergence of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes covid, complicated the picture, since vaccines may work well against one variant, but not against another. Understanding the shots effectiveness against Delta, the variant that is now globally dominant, is a pressing concern.

What If I Got Moderna

Most Moderna recipients probably don’t have a need to choose a different booster.

There might be exceptions — if you had an allergic reaction to Moderna’s vaccine, for example, you should consult your doctor and choose a different one for future shots. An early report on Canadian data also suggested Moderna might carry a higher risk of myocarditis, an uncommon side effect of the mRNA vaccines mostly seen in men under 30, compared to Pfizer. With this assumption, a man under 30 who originally received Moderna and decides he needs a booster may ask a health care provider about switching vaccine types. But again, Moderna’s booster is a smaller dose than its original vaccine, which could be a factor in what your provider recommends.

Read more: Moderna COVID booster recommended for all adults. What to know

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Do I Still Have To Wear A Mask And Continue Covid

The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.

The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctors office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.

Johns Hopkins Medicines current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.

What Makes Yale Medicines Approach To Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Unique

WATCH: Which COVID vaccine is most effective?

While headache is seen in most patients with CVST, it is also a very common symptom seen in many disorders. Clinicians at Yale Medicine are trained to have a high index of suspicion for CVST in the appropriate clinical circumstance , says Dr. Bona. This training is especially important as early diagnosis with early treatment will result in better long-term outcomes.

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Only One Dose Is Needed

The J& J vaccine is the first authorized vaccine to require one dose instead of two, said Dr. Irons during an episode of the AMA COVID-19 Update about the .

The good thing about the Janssen vaccine is it’s one dose and you’re done, echoed Dr. Fryhofer, a member of the AMA Board of Trustees. That means you don’t have to go back for a second dose. You don’t have to make a second appointment. You can get fully vaccinated at one visit.

Additionally, the J& J Janssen vaccine can be stored at regular refrigerator temperatures and does not require dilution, which makes storage and administration easier, she said. Many clinicians had high hopes of using this vaccine in hard to reach geographical areas.

Nih Chief Francis Collins Has Said On Sunday 28 November That The Current Covid

The current COVID-19 vaccines will most likely be effective against the new Omicron variant, said the US’ National Institutes of Health head Francis Collins, adding that boosters have provided especially strong protection against strains like Delta. In an interview with Fox News, he also noted that the variant has a record number of mutations. NIH Director addressed that there are concerns that the variant is a sufficiently different virus due to its unprecedented mutations, particularly in the spike protein, the component of the virus that binds to cells.

We do know that this is a variant that has a lot of mutations like 50 of them, and more than 30 of those in the spike protein, which is the part of the virus that attaches to your human cells if you get infected, Collins said on a televised interview.

That is a new record in terms of the number of mutations. It does make you worry, therefore, that its a sufficiently different virus, that it might not respond as well to protection from the vaccines, but we dont know that, he added. However, he still said that the existing coronavirus vaccines will be effective against the Omicron variant as well.

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What Is It Like To Get A Covid

Two vaccines, one developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and one by Moderna, were each found to be approximately 95% effective in clinical trials and given Early Use Authorization by the Food and Drug Administration in December 2020. And more are on the way. So, the question remains: What is it like to get a COVID-19 vaccine?

We made a list of top concerns and asked Onyema Ogbuagu, MBBCh, a Yale Medicine infectious diseases specialist and Yales leading expert on COVID-19 vaccines, to share insights.

How Does The Covid

Flu Vaccines Work

Vaccines are one of the most effective tools we have in preventing and reducing the burden of infectious diseases. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines are once again poised to change the tide in our favor in the fight against a deadly virus. But how exactly do vaccines work? And are they safe?

Watch this video to learn more about the fundamentals of how vaccines work, how they are developed, and the importance of vaccination for public health.

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Vaccine For Coronavirus: Is It Safe

All three vaccines authorized or approved by the Food and Drug Administration have been thoroughly tested and found to be safe and effective in preventing severe COVID-19. They continue to undergo continuous and intense safety monitoring.

Please see below for more information and safety guidance for the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine and information about rare cases of myocarditis associated with the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.

Johns Hopkins Medicine is administering all three COVID-19 vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson. We view all three vaccines as highly effective in preventing serious disease, hospitalization and death from COVID-19 and that their benefits outweigh their risks.

Johnson & Johnson Vaccine And Tts A Possible Rare Side Effect

A small number of people have developed a serious blood clot condition after they received the J& J vaccine. Nearly all reports of this problem have been in adult women younger than age 50. A review of all available data at this time shows that the J& J vaccines known and potential benefits outweigh its known and potential risks.

However, women younger than age 50 should be aware of this rare adverse event and should know that other COVID-19 vaccines are available.

For three weeks after receiving the J& J vaccine, you should watch for possible symptoms of a blood clot with low platelets called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS. Although very rare and treatable when diagnosed in time, TTS is serious.

Get medical help immediately if you have any of these symptoms within 3 weeks of receiving the J& J coronavirus vaccine:

  • Severe or persistent headaches or blurred vision
  • Shortness of breath
  • Easy bruising or tiny blood spots under the skin near the injection site

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Inactivated Measles And Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

The measles virus is one of the oldest recorded human pathogens, and despite the availability of an effective live attenuated vaccine, it remains a significant threat for many parts of the world . The first live vaccine was licensed in the US in 1963 and since that time the incidence of disease has dropped dramatically . In addition to the live vaccine, a formaldehyde inactivated measles vaccine was also introduced in 1963 . One trial involving over 5,000 children indicated the FIMV could induce seroconversion, though immunity appeared to wane rapidly with titers declining to undetectable levels within 6 months following vaccination . Efficacy studies reinforced this result, with a reasonably high efficacy of 81% observed during the first three months post-vaccination, but dropping to only 63% by 1113 months . More concerning however, were multiple reports detailing an unusual and severe form of measles following wild-type exposure of children, all having previously received the inactivated vaccine . This condition, termed atypical measles, presented a range of symptoms including high rates of muscle and abdominal pain as well as peripheral edema and pneumonia . Based on this and other reports, the vaccine was removed from the market by 1967, just 4 years after its initial licensure .

Johnson & Johnson Vaccine

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In April 2021, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine was paused while the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated a small number of cases of rare blood clots in people who had received that vaccine. Nearly all reports of this problem have been in adult women younger than age 50. After careful review, the FDA and CDC recommended that administration of the J& J COVID-19 vaccine could safely resume. Johns Hopkins Medicine followed these recommendations, temporarily pausing and then resuming use of the J& J vaccine.

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What’s The Difference Among The Covid

While all three vaccines have the same effect — protection against severe COVID-19 disease — the way they function is a little different. Pfizer and Moderna are mRNA vaccines, which teach our cells to make a specific protein and build immunity against a virus. Johnson & Johnson is a viral vector vaccine, which uses a harmless virus to activate an immune response and tell our bodies what to fight in future infections.

Both vaccine types prepare our immune systems for COVID-19 infection, and none of the coronavirus vaccines infects us with the actual coronavirus.

What Are The Expected Side Effects

Just over half of recipients in the clinical trials for all four vaccines experienced at least one reaction affecting their entire body, like fatigue or muscle aches, after their first dose this increased to 60 to 80 per cent after the second dose.

Side effects were more common after the second shot of the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines, while AstraZeneca recipients reported them more frequently after the first dose.

Rx=prescription medication. Per cent of participants in vaccine group experiencing a solicited local or systemic reaction within 7 days following the 1st or 2nd dose.5

Most symptoms were mild to moderate and disappeared after a few days. Severe reactions defined as those that prevent daily activities or require medical attention were rare among all trial participants. Most of the side effects are typical for any inoculation. A little bit of myalgia, fatigue, headache and then injection site reactions, like localized redness, tenderness or swelling are common with all vaccines, says Lacey Robinson, an allergist and immunologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

Our advice to Canadians is to get whichever vaccine is available to you, says Supriya Sharma, Health Canadas chief medical adviser.

Side effects are also more common in younger adults, who make up the bulk of essential workers.

Allergic reactions like anaphylaxis are rare but treatable complications. They occur most often in people with a history of allergic reactions.

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How Do The Four Vaccines Compare In Efficacy And Safety

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have the highest efficacy at around 95 per cent. Lower efficacy, in the 60 to 70 per cent range, was found for the AstraZeneca and Janssen products. .

Side effects are common in all four. They appear to be much the same as some vaccines routinely recommended for older adults like the shingles vaccine, but worse than other vaccines like the high-dose flu shot. In the AstraZeneca trial, in which the control group received a meningococcal vaccine rather than a placebo, a similar proportion of younger participants experienced reactions to the meningococcal vaccine and the COVID-19 vaccine.

Older adults appear to have fewer reactions that affect the whole body, such as fevers, while enjoying similar or even higher protection than younger adults.

However, we should be cautious in comparing these trials since they used different ways to measure efficacy, says Alison Thompson, an associate professor who studies public health policy and ethics at the University of Toronto.

PCV13= pneumococcal conjugate vaccine RZV= recombinant zoster vaccine.1,2,3,4

I think the Johnson and Johnson one had much better clinical endpoints in the trials there was a pretty low bar for establishing efficacy in the other trials, she says.

We should be cautious in comparing these trials since they used different ways to measure efficacy, says Alison Thompson, associate professor at University of Toronto.

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