Wednesday, September 20, 2023

Which Vaccines Are Given To Infants Why

When Should My Child Get Immunized

Reduce vaccination pain in babies – Part 1: How and why?

Your child should receive their first doses of most vaccines during their first two years of life. They may need several doses of the vaccines to reach full protection. For example, the CDC recommends children receive their first dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age or older. They should then receive a second dose before entering elementary school . Your baby can get their childhood vaccines at their regularly scheduled well-baby checkups.

Vaccinations In Infants And Children

The vaccines that are recommended for routine immunization by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in all children from birth through age 6 years are discussed below. For more detailed information, including exceptions and other considerations, see the CDCs full vaccines and immunizations guidelines.

The vaccines listed below are administered via intramuscular injection unless otherwise stated. IM administration in the anterolateral thigh muscle is preferred in neonates, infants, and small children. IM administer in the deltoid muscle is preferred in young children who are of normal weight.

  • First dose of monovalent HepB before hospital discharge*

  • Second dose with monovalent or combination vaccine at age 1 or 2 months

  • Third dose at age 6-18 months

  • *If mother is HBsAg-positive, also administer hepatitis B immune globulin 0.5 mL within 12 hours of birth

  • *If mothers HBsAg status is unknown, also administer HBIG to infants weighing < 2 kg within 12 hours of birth determine mothers HBsAg status as soon as possible, and, if mother is HBsAg-positive, also administer HBIG in infants weighing 2 kg as soon as possible, but no later than age 7 days

  • 2 or 3 doses administered orally

  • If Rotarix is used, administer a 2-dose series at age 2 and 4 months

  • If RotaTeq is used, administer a 3-dose series at age 2, 4, and 6 months

  • If any dose in the series was RotaTeq or vaccine product is unknown for any dose in the series, a total of 3 doses of RV vaccine should be administered

Vaccines For Adolescents: A New Generation Of Vaccines

Adolescents, like adults, were recommended to get tetanus boosters every 10 years most requiring their first booster dose around age 11. Other than this, however, most adolescents did not require additional vaccines unless they missed one in childhood. By 2005, vaccines specifically recommended for adolescents were only recommended for sub-groups based on where they lived or medical conditions that they had. However, a new group of vaccines became available in the latter part of the decade.

  • New vaccines: Tdap, 2005, meningococcal conjugate , HPV , meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
  • Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
  • New versions of existing vaccines: HPV
  • Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine



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Children And Youth Who Are Immunocompromised

Children ages 6 months to 5 years of age who are moderately to severely immunocompromised may be offered 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccine. Children over the age of 5 years old who are moderately to severely immunocompromised should receive 3 doses. The recommended interval is 4 to 8 weeks between each dose.

After having COVID-19, it’s recommended to wait 4 to 8 weeks to receive the next dose in a primary series.

Parents and caregivers of moderately to severely immunocompromised children and youth are encouraged to speak with a health care provider to learn more about vaccination and other ways to protect them against COVID-19.

Vaccines Given At Two Months

Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?

Hepatitis B Vaccine is given to your baby for the second time during the two month check-up.

DTaP Vaccine protects your baby from three life-threatening, toxin-releasing bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis . Often found in unsanitary conditions or from improper wound care, tetanus is a severe disease of the nerves that can cause the jaw to lock. Diphtheria affects breathing and the throat in small children and may cause nerve, heart, and kidney damage. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that mostly affects babies under six months and causes coughing spells that can become severe and potentially deadly. Getting the vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy is also a great way to help prevent your infant from contracting pertussis.

IPV, or Inactivated Polio Vaccine, protects your baby from polio, a contagious, debilitating, and potentially deadly disease. This viral respiratory disease can cause anywhere from flu-like symptoms to neurological disease, severe debilitating paralysis, and death. Babies with polio may never recover from nerve damage that can leave limbs completely paralyzed for life. IPV is nearly 99 percent effective, according to the CDC.

PCV13 Vaccine protects your baby from pneumococcal disease, which may cause pneumonia, infections of the blood, and bacterial meningitis. PCV13 spreads through contact with others, so by getting your baby the vaccine you protect other children, as well.

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What Vaccines Are Given In Childhood

Following is a list of pediatric vaccines given in childhood in the United States :

Hepatitis B virus vaccine

The hepatitis B virus vaccine is primarily given in three-dose series, though there are exceptions. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth in medically stable infants born to HBV negative mothers. HBV vaccine is also given to high-risk populations and as a travel vaccine.

Two HBV vaccines are available in the US:

  • Engerix-B: A four-dose series given at birth, and ages one, two and 12 months.
  • Recombivax HB: A two-dose series for children of age 11-15 years.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are given in two-dose or three-dose primary vaccination, plus a booster. The PCV available in the US is:

  • Prevnar-13: Contains antigens of 13 strains of pneumococci.

Varicella virus vaccine

The varicella virus vaccine is a weakened live vaccine that protects against Varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles. In the United States, VAR is recommended for all children under 13 who have not had the infection, as well as adolescents and adults who lack immunity to it. The varicella virus vaccine available in the US is:

  • Varivax: Given as two-dose series.

Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine

The measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is used as a combination vaccine for children. The MMR vaccine available in the US is:

  • M-M-R II: Given in two doses with the first one in 15-18 months and a second dose at four to six years of age.
  • Adacel

Feature Article: Why Should My Baby Get So Many Vaccines Before 24 Months Of Age

New parents have barely had a chance to meet their baby before they are asked to permit that baby to get a hepatitis B vaccine. Then, often while still on maternity leave, a slew more up to six doses at 8 weeks of age. By the babys first birthday, more than 20 doses. Many of these doses are to protect against diseases parents have never had, or even known others who have. It is no wonder some parents balk at these requests, or at least ask, Why should we consent to this?

Understanding why vaccines are given so early in life and why so many doses of some vaccines are necessary can help make sense of this important parental decision. At the heart of both of these questions is the immunization schedule, so lets take a closer look.

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Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Children

As well as the routine childhood vaccinations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children can have the following extra free vaccines:

  • additional doses of pneumococcal vaccine
  • meningococcal B vaccine
  • hepatitis A vaccine for children living in WA, NT, SA and Qld.
  • annual influenza vaccine each year from 6 months

Find more information on Immunisations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

The 1970s Vaccine Success

How do vaccines help babies fight infections? | How Vaccines Work

During the 1970s, one vaccine was eliminated. Because of successful eradication efforts, the smallpox vaccine was no longer recommended for use after 1972. While vaccine research continued, new vaccines were not introduced during the 1970s.

Late 1970s | Recommended Vaccines

* Given in combination as DTP** Given in combination as MMR

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Why Children Are Vaccinated At Such A Young Age

Children are vaccinated at a very young age because this is when they are most vulnerable to diseases. At this point their immune system is not developed enough to be able to fight serious infections.

The vaccination schedule is based on infants’ ability to create an immune response. Vaccines are given to protect them against 14 serious diseases at a time when they are most at risk.

Medical experts do not advise delaying or spreading out the recommended vaccines. This does not provide any added benefit to your child.

Vaccines Given At Birth

Hepatitis B Vaccine is given before taking your baby home from the hospital. Hepatitis B can cause slow, persistent liver damage in a child. The virus, found in blood and body fluids, can last on a surface for up to a month. Doctors recommend this vaccine for all babies as a preventative to liver disease and cancer from the virus.

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What Is The Childhood Immunization Schedule

The childhood immunization schedule, or childhood vaccine schedule, is the list of common vaccines the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends most children should receive. Immunization is a way to protect your child from getting many different infections and diseases. Many of these illnesses spread easily from child to child and can cause serious health problems. They can even cause death.

Vaccine Development In The 1980s Hepatitis B And Haemophilus Influenzae Type B

Childhood immunization rates slipping to dangerously low levels

The vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b was licensed in 1985 and placed on the recommended schedule in 1989. When the schedule was published again in 1994, the hepatitis B vaccine had been added.

The hepatitis B vaccine was not new, as it had been licensed in 1981 and recommended for high-risk groups such as infants whose mothers were hepatitis B surface antigen positive, healthcare workers, intravenous drug users, homosexual men and people with multiple sexual partners. However, immunization of these groups didn’t effectively stop transmission of hepatitis B virus. Thats because about one-third of patients with acute disease were not in identifiable risk groups. The change of recommendation to immunize all infants in 1991 was the result of these failed attempts to control hepatitis B by only immunizing high-risk groups. Following this recommendation, hepatitis B disease was virtually eliminated in children less than 18 years of age in the United States.

1985 – 1994 | Recommended Vaccines

* Given in combination as DTP** Given in combination as MMR

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How Many Vaccines Do Children Get

By the age of 15 months, your baby may receive up to 10 different types of vaccines. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all healthy babies receive these initial vaccines. Your child may receive additional doses and other vaccines between the ages of 15 months and 16 years old. If your child has a chronic condition or a weakened immune system, their pediatrician may recommend a different schedule.

Why Should I Vaccinate My Child

Vaccines save lives. Measles vaccines alone are estimated to have prevented over 21 million deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Vaccines will help protect your child against diseases that can cause serious harm or death, especially in people with developing immune systems like infants.

Its important to vaccinate your child. If not, highly contagious diseases such as measles, diphtheria and polio, which were once wiped out in many countries, will come back.

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What To Know About The Polio Vaccine And Why Most People Aren’t At Risk Of Infection

The CDC says 99% of fully vaccinated children are protected from polio.

Since a case of polio was reported in Rockland County — just north of New York City — last month, officials have suspected that “hundreds” of cases may be circulating around the state silently.

However, public health experts say most Americans are not at risk of contracting the disease because they were vaccinated as children and protection is long-lasting.

“The average person has really very little risk of acquiring polio if they’ve been vaccinated,” Dr. Daniel Kuritzkes, chief of the division of infectious diseases at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, told ABC News. “The odds are very low.”

There are two vaccines used to protect against polio infection: the inactivated poliovirus vaccine and the oral poliovirus vaccine.

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine, or IPV, is injected and uses an inactivated version of the virus. It’s the only vaccine that’s been used in the U.S. since 2000.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends children receive four doses of the vaccine with one dose each administered at 2 months old, 4 months old, between 6 months and 18 months old, and between ages 4 and 6. More than 92% of children are vaccinated with at least three doses by age 2, the CDC says.

According to the CDC, it is highly effective and 99% of people who receive all recommended doses are protected against severe disease caused by polio.

Vaccines For Adults Increasing Opportunities For Health

Why Do Babies Get So Many Vaccines?

Historically, vaccines were deemed to be only for children. However, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary. Most adults think only of the tetanus booster recommended every 10 years and even then, many adults only get the vaccine if they injure themselves. In 2005, the Tdap vaccine was licensed as an improved version of the typical tetanus booster, Td. The newer version also contains a component to protect against pertussis . All adults, especially those who are going to be around young infants, should get the Tdap vaccine. Adults often unwittingly pass pertussis to young infants for whom the disease can be fatal. In 2012, the CDC recommended that pregnant women get a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. In 2019, the CDC recommended that Tdap or Td vaccine could be used for booster dosing every 10 years.

Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age.

The first formal adult immunization schedule was published in 2002 and is updated annually.

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The Schedule From 2011 To Present

Annual updates to both the childhood and adult immunization schedules offer guidance to healthcare providers in the form of new recommendations, changes to existing recommendations, or clarifications to assist with interpretation of the schedule in certain circumstances. The schedules are reviewed by committees of experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.

Important changes to the schedule:

  • New vaccines: meningococcal serogroup B vaccine
  • Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: HPV , intranasal influenza vaccine
  • Discontinuation of vaccine: intranasal influenza vaccine

2020 | Recommended Vaccines

* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR

Gonorrhea And Chlamydia Test

Some Ob/Gyn practices recommend routine testing at 32 weeks for gonorrhea and chlamydia. Texas is among the states with the highest rate of these sexually transmitted diseases. You may not even know you have these diseases because they dont always present with symptoms. However, the diseases can be passed to the baby during delivery and can cause an infection called ophthalmia neonatorum that may lead to blindness.

If you have been in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship, you may feel comfortable declining this test. There is a chance the test will return a false-positive result, meaning it may show you have one of these diseases when you actually dont. Remember this before you panic that your partner is cheating on you.

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Vaccination And Your Child

Vaccination is the best way to protect your child against many dangerous diseases. In Canada, vaccines prevent illnesses such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B , rotavirus, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases, human papillomavirus virus , and influenza.

Annual Updates To The Immunization Schedule 1995 To 2010

For DTaP Vaccine, Thigh May Be Better Injection Site Than Arm

As more vaccines became available, an annual update to the schedule was important because of changes that providers needed to know, such as detailed information about who should receive each vaccine, age of receipt, number of doses, time between doses, or use of combination vaccines. New vaccines were also added.

Important changes to the schedule between 1995 and 2010 included:

  • New vaccines: Varicella , rotavirus hepatitis A pneumococcal vaccine
  • Additional recommendations for existing vaccines: influenza hepatitis A
  • New versions of existing vaccines: acellular pertussis vaccine intranasal influenza
  • Discontinuation of vaccine: Oral polio vaccine

2000 | Recommended Vaccines

* Given in combination as DTaP** Given in combination as MMR

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Is Your Baby Protected From Vaccine

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Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.

The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.

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