Keeping Track Of Immunizations
Most of your childs vaccinations are completed between birth and 6 years. Many vaccines are given more than once, at different ages, and in combinations. This means that youll need to keep a careful record of your child’s shots. Although your doctor’s office will also keep track, people change doctors, records get lost, and the person ultimately responsible for keeping track of your child’s immunizations is you.
Ask your child’s doctor for an immunization record form. Think about your child’s record as you would a birth certificate and keep it with your other essential documents. You can also download an easy-to-read immunization schedule and record form at the CDC website.
Even though most parents and doctors do a good job of keeping up with immunizations, studies show that about one-fourth of preschool children are missing at least one routine vaccination. Most states will not let your child start school without a complete immunization record. Sometimes a vaccination is missed when a child is sick. No matter what the reason, its important to make up missed immunizations.
If your child has missed an immunization, you don’t have to go back and start over for most vaccines. The previous immunizations are still good. Your doctor will just resume the immunization schedule. If, for any reason, your child receives additional doses of a vaccine, this is also not a concern, although your child will still need any future doses according to the recommended schedule.
Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.
Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months
DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.
Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.
What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is pertussis?
What is polio?
What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?
Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.
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Diphtheria Tetanus And Pertussis
These vaccines have been given in combination since the late 1940s. The version used for babies is referred to as DTaP. It made sense to put these vaccines together, reducing three shots to one, because they are made in the same way, and they protect against these diseases in a similar way.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are each caused by bacteria that make people sick by producing harmful proteins, called toxins. These toxins act like poisons, causing illness. By using inactivated toxins, called toxoids, as the vaccine, people develop antibodies that protect them if they are infected.
Of these three diseases, a baby is most likely to be exposed to pertussis, and pertussis is also the most dangerous because it causes a narrowing of the windpipes that makes it difficult for babies to get enough oxygen when they experience repeated bouts of coughing. Pertussis tends to be under-diagnosed in older children and adults, who frequently transmit it to babies. Unfortunately, of these three vaccines, pertussis is also the one that is least effective. Nonetheless, those immunized with pertussis vaccine are seven times less likely to be infected during an outbreak than those who arent immunized.
When Should My Child Get Immunized
Children should get immunized during their first two years of life. Your child may need several doses of the vaccines to be fully protected. For example, healthcare providers recommend that children receive their first dose of MMR vaccination at 12 months of age or older and a second dose prior to elementary school entry . Children can get the vaccines at regularly scheduled well visits.
Recommended age at which the vaccines should be received and type of vaccine*
*Certain vaccines can be given within a range of ages. This chart represents one recommended schedule. Your child’s pediatrician may follow different guidelines. Please consult with your child’s pediatrician for specific recommendations.
**The influenza vaccine is given annually. The initial dose can be given as early as 6 months of age.
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List Of Pediatric Vaccines Available In The Us And Globally
Hepatitis B vaccine
- Routine childhood immunization to prevent chronic HBV infection
- Usually given as a 3-dose immunization series, although some are given in 2-dose or 4-dose series
- Also recommended for certain high-risk populations and for travel health
- Hepatitis B vaccines available in the U.S.: Engerix-B and Recombivax HB
- Hepatitis B vaccines available globally: Amvax B, Engerix-B, Fendrix, HB-Vax, H-B-Vax II, HBvaxPRO, Hepavax Gene, Recombivax HB, Shanvac-B, Temrevac-HB
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines
- Available as 7-valent, 10-valent, and 13-valent vaccines
- In the U.S., only the pneumococcal 13-valent vaccine is available
- Both the 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines are available in Canada
- Countries may follow a 3-dose primary series or a 2-dose primary series plus a booster
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines available in the U.S.: Prevnar-13 and Prevenar-13
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines available globally: Prevnar, Prevenar, Prevnar-13, Prevenar-13, Synflorix
Varicella Virus Vaccine
- A live attenuated vaccine that protects against varicella-zoster virus
- Given as a 2-dose series in children
- In the U.S., VAR is recommended in all children younger than 13 years who have not had varicella virus infection, and in adolescents and adults without evidence of immunity
- Varicella virus vaccine available in the U.S.: Varivax
- Varicella virus vaccines available globally: Okavax, Vaccin Varilrix, Varicela Biken, Varcelvax, Varilrix, Varipox, Varivax, Varivax III, V-Z Vax
Newborn Vaccines Your Baby Needs
Is your baby protected from vaccine-preventable diseases? Here’s the newborn vaccine schedule recommended by the CDC and AAP for your baby’s first months of life.
Your baby will be given a handful of vaccines and supplements in the first months of life. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the carefully-planned childhood vaccine schedule. Following the schedule in the coming months and years will put your infant on track for life-long immunity to dangerous diseases.
The vaccines recommended for your young baby are closely monitored by the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness. Here are the vaccines that your baby will receive from birth through two months.
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Hearing Test For Newborns
Sometime in the first day after your baby is born, he or she will also have a hearing test done. Typically, this test will wait until at least six hours after birth, as its common that the process of birth leaves some residue in the babys ears that can interfere with the hearing screen. Waiting allows the ear canals to clear out a bit more.
This test is very simple and completely painless to your baby. the nurse places some special headphones on the babys ears that release sound and measure the babys response to the sounds. If the test detects a low response, the hearing screen will typically be repeated. If your baby fails the hearing screen again, another repeat will be scheduled for approximately one week after you leave the hospital and if your baby fails that repeat, you will be referred to a hearing specialist.
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Final Tips On Immunizations
Keep this information in mind to help your childs immunizations go more smoothly:
Common side effects of immunizations include swelling at the site of the injection, soreness, and fever. Discuss these side effects with your doctor and ask what symptoms deserve an office call.
Ask your doctor’s office if it participates in an immunization registry. This is a source you can go to if your immunization records get lost.
Ask your doctor’s office if it has an immunization reminder or recall system. This type of system will call to remind you when immunizations are due and will warn you if an immunization has been missed.
Always bring your immunizations record with you to all of your child’s office visits and make sure the doctor signs and dates every immunization.
Vaccines are some of the safest and most effective medicines we have, and they have made many dangerous childhood diseases rare today.
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Vaccines Given At Two Months
Hepatitis B Vaccine is given to your baby for the second time during the two month check-up.
DTaP Vaccine protects your baby from three life-threatening, toxin-releasing bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis . Often found in unsanitary conditions or from improper wound care, tetanus is a severe disease of the nerves that can cause the jaw to lock. Diphtheria affects breathing and the throat in small children and may cause nerve, heart, and kidney damage. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that mostly affects babies under six months and causes coughing spells that can become severe and potentially deadly. Getting the vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy is also a great way to help prevent your infant from contracting pertussis.
Should I Be Worried About The Increasing Number Of Vaccines Recommended For Children
No. Because of advances in science and manufacturing, it is easier than in the past to be sure that vaccines are highly pure. Vaccines represent only a minor stimulation of the infant immune system compared to the large number of potentially dangerous bacteria and viruses babies routinely encounter: starting immediately after a baby is born thousands of different bacteria begin to live on the skin and the lining of the nose, throat, and intestines. The babys immune system rapidly launches immune responses to these bacteria that prevent them from invading the blood stream.
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If Your Child Can’t Be Vaccinated
Some children may not be able to get some vaccines, including those with:
- specific medical conditions
- severe allergic reactions to vaccine ingredients
Examples include children who need to take high-dose steroids or who have a weakened immune system from cancer treatment . These children may need to avoid vaccines that contain a weakened live virus, such as measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox.
These children are at risk of getting the disease that the vaccine would have prevented.
Talk to your health care provider or local public health authority if you have any concerns about your child’s health status and vaccines.
If your child can’t be vaccinated, you can help protect them by encouraging others to get vaccinated. This will help prevent the spread of disease to your child.
Will My Child Get Sick If I Don’t Immunize Him
Maybe. If kids are never exposed to any of these diseases, they won’t get sick. If unimmunized kids are exposed to any of these diseases, there’s a good chance they’ll get the disease. What happens then depends on the child and the disease. At the least, kids could get a mild rash and have to stay home from child care or school for a few days. On the other hand, they may become sick enough to be hospitalized, suffer a permanent disability, or die.
If kids gets one of these diseases, they could also spread it to other kids who aren’t protected. If there are enough unprotected kids in your community, it could lead to an epidemic, with many kids getting sick.
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Which Vaccine Is Better For Your Children: Moderna Or Pfizer How Do You Decide
As parents, all you want to do is make the best decision for your kids. But navigating the uncertainties of the pandemic has made this extremely difficult. And now, with the approval of two vaccines for small kids, how do you know which one is better?
Dr. Rob Rohatsch, MD breaks it down for us. Deciding which vaccine to choose mostly boils down to a trade-off between the number of shots vs. the vaccine dose. With Moderna, your kids can be fully vaccinated in two doses, but Pfizer requires three doses stretched over a longer period. Many parents may prefer Moderna for this reason.
Dr. Rohatsch adds, If you select the Pfizer vaccine, your baby or child can receive smaller doses in each shot, which might buy you time to monitor any reactions to the vaccine.
Whats the bottom line? Both vaccines effectively prevent severe disease, hospitalizations, and death from COVID. If you need more information, consider discussing your concerns with a medical professional. With Solv, you can video chat with an amazing US-based provider in less than 15 minutes.
How Vaccines Are Given
Most vaccines are given by needle in the upper arm or thigh. Some vaccines, like the rotavirus vaccine, are given by mouth. There’s also a flu vaccine for children that’s sprayed into the nose.
Some vaccines are given separately. Others, like the MMR vaccine, protect against 3 diseases in one vaccine.
Your child’s immune system can learn from more than 1 vaccine at a time. For instance, babies can respond to 10,000 different antigens at any one time.
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When Do Babies Get The Polio Vaccine
The polio vaccine is a combination of three doses of immunisation, each protecting against the three types of polio.
Childhood immunisation schedule starts at eight weeks old, where babies are given two injections and drops into the mouth.
This protects against eight known illnesses, one of which is polio along with hepatitis B, tetanus and others.
At 12 weeks, the baby will go for their second injections and drops to boost the existing immunisation.
Finally at 16 weeks they will get their third polio injection as part of the six in one jab, which provides up to 99% immunity from the virus.
How Can Parents Keep Children Safe Before They Get The Covid
Since it may still be a while before your littlest ones can get vaccinated, its important to continue following the same safety measures youve used throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, says Kyle Monk, M.D., a pediatrician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California and member of the What to Expect Medical Review Board.
This includes wearing masks, practicing social distancing and washing hands frequently. “You still need to hold off on unmasked playdates or sleepovers until children are vaccinated,” adds Dr. Monk.
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What Is The Covid Risk For Infants And Children Under 5
Though the overall risk of COVID is low, CDC data shows that COVID-19 can cause serious illness in unvaccinated infants and children under 4 years of age. Thousands of children under 5 have been hospitalized due to COVID, and there have been hundreds of deaths. It can be very scary for parents to see their children sick many may not want to take a chance.
Vaccines can offer an added layer of protection. If you would like to learn more, Solv can help you see a doctor near you in less than a day.
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Vaccines for babies and children
Babies ages 0-24 months need vaccines to protect against illnesses such as hepatitis B, chickenpox, whooping cough, measles, and many more. Older children also need vaccines to help protect them from getting sick at school. Every year in the early fall, everyone 6 months of age and older needs an annual influenza vaccination.
How can I make my baby more comfortable while they are getting vaccinated? You can learn about simple ways to make vaccines less stressful. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a list of tips called 9 tips to make shots less stressful.
What is the vaccine schedule? The recommended vaccine schedule is designed to keep infants and young children healthy. The CDC has created a schedule specifically for parents in English and Spanish. There is also a childhood vaccine assessment tool that will tell you which vaccines are needed based on your child’s age. A more detailed schedule can be found on the CDC website.
Moms-to-be can sign up for Text4Baby, a free mobile texting service that can help keep track of information, including vaccine schedules, and appointments to help care for themselves and their babies.
What is community immunity ? Community Immunityis when an entire group or community is protected from a disease. The more people who are immune from a disease, the less chance there is for the disease spread, thereby protecting the whole group or community.
Vaccines for preteens
Vaccines for older teens
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