How Safe Is The Vaccine
The first HPV vaccines were approved in 2006, following large clinical trials involving more than 20,000 people. Since then, research covering hundreds of thousands of vaccinations shows a similar safety profile to other childhood vaccines. The safety data for Gardasil 9 is consistent with the HPV4 safety studies.All applications seeking consent to distribute a medicine in New Zealand are evaluated by Medsafe. This evaluation is performed to internationally defined standards and requirements. Gardasil 9 was evaluated by Medsafe and approved in 2016. Gardasil 9 is also approved in the United States, Europe, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. In New Zealand, as in other countries, there is ongoing monitoring of vaccine safety. The reactions reported from Gardasil 9 are similar to other immunisations. The most common reactions are injection site pain, redness, and swelling. Nausea and fainting have also been reported. The only known severe reaction is a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis, which usually occurs within minutes of the immunisation being given. Anaphylaxis is rare about three anaphylactic reactions per 1 million doses of vaccine administered. Every vaccinator is trained and equipped to deal with an anaphylactic reaction if one occurs. For this reason, patients are asked to wait 20 minutes after a vaccine is given, so that medical treatment can be provided.
Medsafe have further information about Gardasil 9 on their website:
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Receive The Hpv Vaccine
Certain people should not get the HPV vaccine or should wait before getting it:
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- Anyone who has had a previous life-threatening allergic reaction to an ingredient in the HPV vaccine
- Pregnant women
- Anyone with a moderate or severe illness people who feel mildly ill may still receive the HPV vaccine.
Do You Envision The Hpv Vaccine Age Limit Will Increase In The Future So That More People Can Get Vaccinated
Dr. Kriplani: I think it probably will over time. Theres not a safety issue past age 45. We just arent sure how much the vaccine will help men and women who are past that age, because so many of us have acquired HPV by that point, and because it takes many years for cancer to develop after acquiring the virus. However, as the average life expectancy increases, it may benefit the population to increase the age limit for HPV vaccination as well.
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What Changes To Hpv Immunisation Happened From 1 January 2017
From 1 January 2017, HPV immunisation is funded for everyone aged 926 including boys and young men.
Gardasil 9 will replace the existing Gardasil vaccine. The vaccine is given as two doses to those aged 14 years and under, and three doses to those aged 15 years and older.
The vaccine is offered to boys and girls through participating schools at Year 8, around age 12. HPV immunisation is also available free through general practices from 9 years of age.
Gardasil 9 is being used in schools from the beginning of 2017, and in general practices later in the year once stocks of the existing Gardasil vaccine have run out. Those who have begun immunisation with the existing Gardasil vaccine should complete the course with that vaccine while it is available .
Can A Vaccine Help Prevent Hpv
Yes. Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S.
Gardasil 9 helps prevent infection by 4 types of HPV , plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Together these types cause about 90% of cervical cancers.
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Why Is Hpv Vaccination Important
The combination of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can provide the greatest protection against cervical cancer. Also, HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing cancers caused by HPV at sites other than the cervix.
Not only does vaccination protect vaccinated individuals against infection by the HPV types targeted by the vaccine that is used , but vaccination can also reduce the prevalence of the vaccine-targeted HPV types in the population, thereby reducing infection in individuals who are not vaccinated . For example, in Australia, where a high proportion of girls are vaccinated with Gardasil, the incidence of genital warts went down during the first 4 years of the vaccination program among young maleswho were not being vaccinated at the timeas well as among young females .
Further evidence that large-scale HPV vaccination confers protection for unvaccinated individuals comes from a 2019 meta-analysis of girls-only HPV vaccination programs in 14 high-income countries that included 60 million vaccinated people . That analysis showed that, up to 8 years after the start of vaccination, diagnoses of anogenital warts decreased by 31% among women aged 2529 years, by 48% among boys aged 1519 years, and by 32% among men aged 2024 years, compared with the period before vaccination began.
Can Genital Hpv Infections Be Treated
HPV infections cannot be treated however, the symptoms of HPV can be treated, at least to some extent. For example, genital warts can be treated with medications or surgically removed however, they may return, and the patient may still be infected with HPV and could, therefore, still transmit the infection.
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The Universal Human Papillomavirus Immunisation Programme
Protecting against HPV infection to help reduce your risk of cancer
More than 280 million doses of the HPV vaccine have been given worldwide, including 120 million doses in the US and over 10 million in the UK. The HPV vaccine has been offered to all girls in school year 8 since September 2008. From September 2019 the vaccine has also been offered to year 8 boys.
This is because the evidence is clear that the HPV vaccine helps protect both boys and girls from HPV-related cancers.
The HPV vaccine helps protect you from being infected by the human papillomavirus
This virus increases the risk of developing some cancers later in life, such as:
- cervical cancer
- some mouth and throat cancers
The HPV vaccine does not protect against other sexually transmitted infections.
Immunogenicity Efficacy And Effectiveness
HPV vaccine is highly immunogenic. More than 99% of vaccine recipients develop an antibody response to vaccine HPV types after completing a 3-dose series. In immunocompetent, non-HIV infected individuals 9 to 14 years of age, a 2-dose schedule of HPV2, HPV4, or HPV9 vaccine is as equally immunogenic as a 3 dose series in individuals 15 to 24 years of age. The immune correlates of protection against HPV infection are unknown.
Efficacy and effectiveness
In Canada, immunization against HPV types 16 and 18 contained in HPV2, HPV4 and HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 70% of anogenital cancers and 60% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization against HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 contained in HPV9 vaccine could further prevent up to 14% of anogenital cancers and 30% of high-risk precancerous cervical lesions. Immunization with either HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine can prevent approximately 90% of genital warts.
HPV vaccine has no proven therapeutic effect on existing HPV infection. Prior infection with one or more vaccine HPV types does not diminish vaccine efficacy against other vaccine HPV types. The duration of protection following HPV vaccination is not known. Clinical trial subjects have been followed for approximately 10 years for HPV2 and HPV4 vaccines with no evidence of waning protection.
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What Is The Gardasil 9 Vaccine
Gardasil 9 is one of three HPV vaccines available worldwide. Its predecessor Gardasil has been used in New Zealand since 2008. Gardasil 9 has replaced HPV4 in the United States and will do so in New Zealand from 2017.
Immunisation with Gardasil 9 can prevent infection with:
- the seven HPV types that cause nine out of ten HPV-related cancers
- the two HPV types that cause nine out of ten cases of genital warts.
Gardasil 9 will not be offered in general practices until stocks of the existing HPV4 vaccine have run out. Many people being immunised in general practices in early 2017 will therefore be given HPV4 vaccine. HPV types 16 and 18, which are common to both vaccines, are responsible for around nine out of ten HPV-related cancers in men, which means that for men there is little practical difference between the protection offered by the two vaccines. Both vaccines also protect against nine out of ten cases of genital warts.
Vaccination Of Specific Populations
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
HPV vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnancy because data on HPV vaccination in pregnancy are limited. HPV vaccine, however, has not been causally associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy or adverse events to the developing fetus. In the absence of data, it is recommended that initiation of the HPV vaccine series should be delayed until after completion of the pregnancy. If a woman is found to be pregnant after initiating the vaccination series, completion of the series should be delayed until after pregnancy. No intervention is required if vaccine has been administered during pregnancy.
Vaccine recipients and health care providers are encouraged to report any exposure to HPV4 or HPV9 vaccine during pregnancy to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-567-2594. Exposure to HPV2 vaccine during pregnancy should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer at 1-800-387-7374.
There are limited data on the effects on breastfed infants from HPV vaccination of their mothers however, there have been no reported adverse events thought to be vaccine-related. Therefore, HPV vaccine may be administered to breastfeeding women.
Refer to Immunization in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Refer to Immunization of Immunocompromised Persons in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are immunocompromised.
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When Should Adults Get The Hpv Vaccine
The best time to get the HPV vaccine is before you’ve started having sexual activity. That’s why the CDC recommends that both boys and girls get their vaccination at age 11 or 12, although they can get the vaccine as early as age 9. If you’re 13 or older and you haven’t already been vaccinated, you can still get the vaccine.
It is recommended for all people through the age of 26. Some adults ages 27-45 may get the vaccine after talking with their doctor.
How many shots do I need?
The CDC recommends two doses of HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12 years. The second shot should be given 6-12 months after the first.
If you can get all shots prior to age 15, only two are needed. Three doses are needed if you get the first dose on or after your 15th birthday, and for people with weakened immune systems. The second dose should be given 1-2 months after the first dose. And the third dose should be given 6 months after the first dose.
If I already have HPV, will this vaccine treat it?
If you have a current HPV, the vaccine won’t get rid of it. But, if you have one type of HPV, the vaccine may prevent you from getting another type of the virus. There’s really no way to treat the virus once you have it, although there are treatments for diseases caused by HPV such as genital warts and genital cancers. This is why you should have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer.
Who Should Not Get The Hpv Vaccine
People should not get the HPV vaccine if they:
- Are pregnant.
- Have had severe reactions to any ingredients in the vaccine or to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine.
Tell your healthcare provider about any severe allergies you have, including yeast or latex allergies. People with moderate to severe illnesses may be asked to wait to get the vaccine until they are well.
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What Does Hpv Mean For My Relationship
HPV infections are usually temporary. A person may have HPV for many years before it causes health problems. If you or your partner receive a diagnosis of a disease from HPV, there is no way to know:
- How long you have had HPV
- Whether your partner gave you HPV or
- Whether you gave HPV to your partner.
HPV is not always a sign that one of you is having sex outside of your relationship. It is important that sex partners discuss their sexual health and risk for STIs with each other.
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What Hpv Testing Is Available
Women can get HPV tests and/or Pap tests to determine whether they have an HPV infection that can lead to cervical cancer. Both tests detect early health problems that can lead to cervical cancer, but neither checks for warning signs of other cancers, fertility or other STDs. Although both tests have a common goal, they do have their differences:
- Recommended for women 21 and older.
- Involves scraping the cervix to identify any abnormal changes in cells of the cervix that could later develop into cancer.
- Results are typically reported as normal, unclear, or abnormal:
- Normal means that no changes were found in the cells
- Unclear indicates that the cells look like they could be abnormal
- Abnormal means that changes in cervical cells were found
If both tests are normal, it is highly unlikely that serious cervical cell changes will develop in the next three years however, regular wellness visits should not be skipped.
If either test is abnormal, more testing will be completed. Abnormal results do not mean that you have cervical cancer, but that cells in your cervix could eventually become cancerous. However, finding the abnormal cells early allows for more successful treatment.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects
Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. Many people who get HPV vaccine have no side effects at all. Some people report having very mild side effects, like a sore arm from the shot.
The most common side effects of HPV vaccine are usually mild and include:
- Pain, redness, or swelling in the arm where the shot was given
- Dizziness or fainting
- Headache or feeling tired
- Muscle or joint pain
To prevent fainting and injuries from fainting, adolescents should be seated or lying down during vaccination and for 15 minutes after getting the shot.
Very rarely, severe allergic reactions might occur after vaccination. People with severe allergies to any component of a vaccine should not receive that vaccine.
Age Range For Two Doses
A two-dose regimen is recommended for people ages 9 to 14. The first dose must be initiated before a person turns 15 to fall under the two-dose schedule.
Research shows that children in the 9-14 age range who receive two doses of the vaccine at least six months apart have equal or greater protection than people over the age of 15 who receive three doses.
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Hpv Vaccine: What Age Is Too Late
All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is mosteffective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Its likely youve heard about the HPV vaccine. This vaccine can protect your child against the human papillomavirus . This virus causes several types of cancer, including cervical, , vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers.
The HPV vaccine is recommended for pre-teens. But why? And does it work for older teens and adults? When it comes to the HPV vaccine, how late is too late?
There are a lot of questions surrounding the HPV vaccine. We spoke with Lois Ramondetta, M.D., professor of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine. Heres what she told us about the age range for the HPV vaccine.
Males and females ages 9 to 45 can get the vaccine
The CDC recommends all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine between the ages of 11 and 12, the age for optimal protection. They should get two shots, six to 12 months apart.
Vaccines given to 14 or 15 year olds are late and less effective, Ramondetta says.
In fact, patients 15 and older should receive three shots over the course of six months to receive the same benefit.
The bottom line: All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is most effective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages 2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Lois Ramondetta, M.D.
Who Should Not Get Hpv Vaccine
Tell your doctor about any severe allergies. Some people should not get some HPV vaccines if:
- They have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any ingredient of an HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine.
- They have an allergy to yeast .
- They are pregnant.
HPV vaccines are safe for children who are mildly ill, like those with a low-grade fever of less than 101 degrees, a cold, runny nose, or cough. People with a moderate or severe illness should wait until they are better.
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