Wednesday, March 22, 2023

Who Gives Yellow Fever Vaccine

How Long The Yellow Fever Vaccine Lasts

WHO: Yellow fever vaccines global stockpile – Questions and answers (Q& A)

The yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people.

A further dose of vaccine is recommended for a small number of travellers who are visiting yellow fever risk areas, including those who were previously vaccinated when they were:

Rarely, a further dose of vaccine may also be advised if there’s a concern about the traveller’s risk of yellow fever, for example, if they’re working or living for some time in a high-risk area.

Contact a yellow fever vaccination centre for advice if you’re not sure if you need another dose before travelling.

Risks Of A Vaccine Reaction

  • Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given are common after yellow fever vaccine.
  • Fever sometimes happens.
  • Headache and muscle aches can occur.
  • More serious reactions happen rarely after yellow fever vaccine. These can include:
  • Life-threatening severe illness with organ dysfunction or failure.

People 60 years and older and people with weakened immune systems might be more likely to experience serious reactions to yellow fever vaccine.

People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Tell your provider if you feel dizzy or have vision changes or ringing in the ears.

As with any medicine, there is a remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Side Effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction:hives wheezing, chest tightness, difficult breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first vaccine. Keep track of any and all side effects that occur within 30 days after you receive this vaccine. If you ever need to receive a booster dose, you will need to tell your doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.

Seek medical attention right away if you have any of these symptoms similar to yellow fever that may occur within 10 days after vaccination:

  • fever, headache, confusion, extreme tiredness

  • muscle pain or weakness

  • a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out

  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding

  • little or no urination or

  • vomiting, loss of appetite, jaundice .

Becoming infected with yellow fever is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these rare but serious side effects within 10 days after you receive the vaccine:

  • high fever, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light

  • extreme tiredness, neck stiffness, seizure

  • problems with walking, breathing, speech, swallowing, vision, or eye movement

  • weakness or prickly feeling in your fingers or toes

  • severe pain or

  • loss of bladder or bowel control.

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Side Effects Of The Yellow Fever Vaccine

The yellow fever vaccine can cause some side effects, but the risk of not being vaccinated usually outweighs the risk of having side effects.

After having the vaccine, up to 1 in every 3 people gets:

  • soreness at the injection site

These side effects usually pass within 2 weeks.

Rarely, a person can get more serious side effects, including an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the vaccine.

A very rare side effect of the vaccine can cause problems with the brain or other organs, which can be fatal. This is more likely to affect:

  • people aged 60 or older
  • people with weakened immune systems
  • anyone who’s had their thymus gland removed or has a thymus gland disorder

Get medical advice if you feel very unwell within a few days or weeks of having the yellow fever vaccine.

Page last reviewed: 22 May 2020 Next review due: 22 May 2023

How Travellers Get Yellow Fever Cards Without Vaccination

Planning A Trip To Brazil? Do Not Forget Your Yellow Fever ...
Monday October 28 2019

Genuine. The Yellow Fever card got from Norvik Hospital, one of the accredited health facilities.


Scam. Our investigation shows that airport officials cannot tell whether a traveller, who carries the card, has been vaccinated or not because details of people vaccinated remain at the accredited hospitals, thus giving leeway to forgery.

Forgery. The Yellow Fever card from Kisenyi Health Centre IV. photos by RACHEL MABALA

Sarah Opendi, State minister of health in charge of general duties

Health warningMs Opendi wondered why someone would choose to travel with a fake card yet vaccination would prevent them from acquiring the deadly haemorrhagic disease. Why are people risking their lives by travelling outside the country without vaccination? When you choose to use a fake card, it means you are taking your life for granted, she said.Asked why the details of those who are vaccinated from accredited hospitals are not shared with officials at the airport for verification, Ms Opendi said the ministry would look into that option.However, she warned all accredited hospitals against loopholes in the issuance of the cards, saying such an anomaly not only points at laxity in their systems to fight fraud, but also breaches the agreement they made with the ministry.

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Vaccines Recommended For Travel And Some Specific Groups

Yellow fever can be prevented by vaccination. Travelers should also take precautions against mosquito bites when in areas with yellow fever transmission. Travelers should get vaccinated for yellow fever before visiting areas where yellow fever is found.

For most travelers, a single dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection, and a booster dose of the vaccine is not needed. However, some travelers may require a booster dose. Talk to your healthcare provider to determine if you may need a dose of yellow fever vaccine or a booster dose before your trip to an area at risk for yellow fever.

In the United States, the vaccine is given only at designated yellow fever vaccination centers. International regulations require proof of yellow fever vaccination for travel to and from certain countries. People who get vaccinated should be given an International Certificate of Vaccination. Also note that the vaccine is to be given at least 10 days before travel to an endemic area.

International Certificate Of Vaccination Or Prophylaxis

The IHR allow countries to require proof of YF vaccination documented on an ICVP as a condition of entry for travelers arriving from certain countries, even if only in transit, to prevent importation and indigenous transmission of YF virus. Some countries require evidence of vaccination from all entering travelers, which includes direct travel from the United States . A traveler who has a specific contraindication to YF vaccine and who cannot avoid travel to a country requiring vaccination should request a waiver from a physician before embarking on travel . Travelers arriving without proof of YF vaccination or a medical waiver to a country that has a YF vaccination entry requirement may be quarantined for up to 6 days, refused entry, or vaccinated onsite.

People who received YF vaccination after December 15, 2007, must provide proof of vaccination on the new ICVP. If the person received the vaccine before December 15, 2007, their original International Certificate of Vaccination against Yellow Fever card is still valid as proof of vaccination. Vaccinees should receive a completed ICVP , validated with the stamp of the center where the vaccine was given . Failure to secure validations can cause a traveler to be quarantined, denied entry, or possibly revaccinated at the point of entry to a country.

People Authorized to Sign the ICVP and Designated Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers

Medical Waivers

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What If There Is A Severe Reaction

What should I look for?

Look for any unusual condition, such as a high fever, behavior changes, or flu-like symptoms that occur 1 to 30 days after vaccination. Signs of an allergic reaction can include difficulty breathing, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, or dizziness within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot.

What should I do?

  • a doctor, or get the person to a doctor right away.
  • Tell the doctor what happened, the date and time it happened, and when the vaccination was given.
  • Ask your doctor to report the reaction by fi ling a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System form. Or you can file this report through the VAERS website at , or by calling . VAERS does not provide medical advice.

Vaccine Safety And Adverse Events

Vaccine Apathy in Nigeria Fuels Yellow Fever Outbreak

Refer to Adverse events following immunization Part 2 for additional general information.

Common and local adverse events

In a comparative study, 71.9% of subjects vaccinated with YF vaccine reported one or more non-serious adverse events assessed as related to vaccination. Injection site reactions were reported by 5.7% to 39.4% of subjects . Systemic reactions were reported by 10.1% to 31.4% of subjects up to 10 days post vaccination.

Less common and serious or severe adverse events

Serious adverse events are rare following immunization and, in most cases, data are insufficient to determine a causal association. Hypersensitivity reactions including rash, urticaria, asthma and anaphylaxis are very rare, with observations over the past decades of an incidence of less than 1 per million. However, reporting rates to the United States Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System based on two reviews 10 years apart were higher: 0.8 per 100,000 doses distributed in the earlier study and 1.8 in the more recent study. The primary risk factor appears to be gelatin and egg protein sensitivity.

Two additional serious adverse events, YF vaccine associated neurotropic disease and YF vaccine associated viscerotropic disease , are described below.

Other reported adverse events and conditions

YF vaccine-associated neurotropic disease
YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease

Guidance on reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

Contraindications and precautions

Thymus disease

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Who May Be Able To Have The Vaccine In Some Circumstances

If you’re not sure whether you can have the yellow fever vaccine, ask a travel health specialist at the vaccination centre. They’ll do a full risk assessment based on your or your child’s medical history and where you’re travelling to.

People who may be able to have the vaccine include:

  • those aged 60 and over only when travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
  • those who are pregnant if travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
  • those who are breastfeeding expert advice is needed for women who are breastfeeding babies under 9 months
  • those with long-term inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis if on low-dose steroid therapy
  • babies from 6 months to under 9 months of age if travel is unavoidable and risk is high, expert advice is needed
  • those living with HIV only after specialist advice

Take extra care to prevent insect bites while travelling if you have not been vaccinated.

What If There Is A Serious Problem

An allergic reaction could occur after the vaccinated person leaves the clinic. If you see signs of a severe allergic reaction , call 9-1-1 and get the person to the nearest hospital.

For other signs that concern you, call your health care provider.

Adverse reactions should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your health care provider will usually file this report, or you can do it yourself. Visit the VAERS website at or call 1-800-822-7967. VAERS is only for reporting reactions, and VAERS staff do not give medical advice.

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Fractioning Doses Of Yellow Fever Vaccine Can Help Save More Lives

  • An MSF/Epicentre study has found giving one-fifth of a normal dose of yellow fever vaccine provides protection.
  • The disease can be deadly and is incurable, claiming 30,000 lives each year outbreaks in Africa are common.
  • The study findings will allow for more people to be vaccinated and lives saved during sudden outbreaks of the disease.

NEW YORK/PARIS – Giving people a fraction of a yellow fever vaccine is effective and could help vaccinate millions more people during emergencies, according to results of a recent study led by Médecins Sans Frontiéres research arm Epicentre, published in The Lancet. These clinical trial results, which found that giving a person one-fifth of the standard yellow fever vaccine dose is effective and safe, will make it easier for governments and international organisations to prevent people from getting sick from yellow fever during outbreaks in times of vaccine shortage.

When big yellow fever epidemics hit, countries and MSF need to access vaccines urgently, said Dr Myriam Henkens, MSF international medical coordinator. Vaccination is the most important measure for preventing the disease.

This study means that treatment providers can now rest assured that giving people smaller doses of any of the World Health Organization -prequalified yellow fever vaccines will protect the person in front of them, while helping to keep even more people safe, said Dr Henkens.

Yellow fever

Initial Symptoms Of Yellow Fever

Planning A Trip To Brazil? Do Not Forget Your Yellow Fever ...

The clinical spectrum of yellow fever varies from a non-specific illness to fatal haemorrhagic fever.37 The disease begins abruptly with:

  • fever
  • eye congestion

The patient appears acutely ill.

The symptoms indicate a period of infection. During this time, there is an intense viraemia that lasts 34 days.37

This may be followed by the period of remission. During this time, the fever and symptoms settle over 2448 hours, and the immune response clears the virus.37

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Who Needs The Vaccine

Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for the following:

  • all persons aged 9 months or older who are living in or traveling to areas of South America, Africa, or other countries where the yellow fever virus is found
  • people who are traveling to countries requiring proof of yellow fever immunization
  • anyone who might come into contact with the yellow fever virus, such as laboratory workers or healthcare professionals

People who are pregnant are advised to get the vaccine only if they must travel to an area where theres an epidemic and protection from mosquito bites isnt possible.

The vaccine shouldnt be given to:

  • children younger than 9 months of age
  • adults older than 59 years of age
  • people with reduced immunity, such as people with HIV or those receiving chemotherapy
  • people whove had a severe reaction to egg, gelatin, or other ingredients of the vaccine
  • people whove had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine
  • people whove had their thymus removed or those with a thymus disorder
  • travelers over the age of 60 who havent been previously vaccinated against yellow fever

If you have a fever, its best to wait to get the vaccine until youre feeling better.

In addition, those who are pregnant or breastfeeding should only be vaccinated if theres an unavoidable risk or protection against mosquito bites isnt possible.

Before Taking This Medicine

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a yellow fever vaccine, or if you have:

  • an allergy to gelatin, eggs, or chicken proteins

  • a disorder such as myasthenia gravis

  • a disease or tumor of the thymus gland, or if your thymus has been surgically removed or

  • if you have received a transplant.

If you have a high risk of exposure to yellow fever, you may need to receive the vaccine even if you have an allergy to eggs or chicken products. Your doctor can give you the vaccine in several small doses to avoid an allergic reaction.

In special cases, a doctor or health official may determine that a child between 6 and 9 months old should receive a yellow fever vaccine. Children younger than 6 months old should not receive this vaccine.

To make sure yellow fever vaccine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:

  • a seizure

  • a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia

  • Guillain Barré syndrome or

  • an allergy to latex.

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a cold or fever. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.

It is not known whether yellow fever vaccine will harm an unborn baby. However, if you are at a high risk for infection with yellow fever during pregnancy, your doctor should determine whether you need this vaccine.

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Choose From A List Of States And Territories

Frequently Asked Questions about the U.S. Yellow Fever Vaccination Center Registry

State Yellow Fever Coordinators can update information for an authorized yellow fever vaccine provider/center.

Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
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  • You will be subject to the destination website’s privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.

How Is Yellow Fever Vaccine Given

Get Vaccinated For Yellow Fever

This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle.

Yellow fever vaccine is given every 10 years to people who are at risk of exposure to yellow fever. The first shot can be given to a child who is at least 9 months old. Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

After receiving the vaccine, you will be given an International Certificate of Vaccination from the clinic where you receive your yellow fever vaccine. You will need this card as proof of vaccination to enter certain countries. This card becomes valid 10 days after you receive the vaccination and remains valid for 10 years.

Yellow fever vaccine can cause false results on a blood test for dengue or Japanese encephalitis. Tell any doctor who treats you if you have received a yellow fever vaccine within the past 4 to 6 weeks.

In addition to receiving yellow fever vaccine, use protective clothing, insect repellents, and mosquito netting around your bed to further prevent mosquito bites that could infect you with the yellow fever virus.

If you continue to travel or live in areas where yellow fever is common, you should receive a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine every 10 years.

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