When Should Adults Get The Hpv Vaccine
The best time to get the HPV vaccine is before you’ve started having sexual activity. That’s why the CDC recommends that both boys and girls get their vaccination at age 11 or 12, although they can get the vaccine as early as age 9. If you’re 13 or older and you haven’t already been vaccinated, you can still get the vaccine.
It is recommended for all people through the age of 26. Some adults ages 27-45 may get the vaccine after talking with their doctor.
How many shots do I need?
The CDC recommends two doses of HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12 years. The second shot should be given 6-12 months after the first.
If you can get all shots prior to age 15, only two are needed. Three doses are needed if you get the first dose on or after your 15th birthday, and for people with weakened immune systems. The second dose should be given 1-2 months after the first dose. And the third dose should be given 6 months after the first dose.
If I already have HPV, will this vaccine treat it?
If you have a current HPV, the vaccine won’t get rid of it. But, if you have one type of HPV, the vaccine may prevent you from getting another type of the virus. There’s really no way to treat the virus once you have it, although there are treatments for diseases caused by HPV such as genital warts and genital cancers. This is why you should have regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to screen for cervical cancer.
Hpv Vaccine Side Effects
HPV vaccines can cause pain, swelling, and redness where the shot was given, as well as headaches, tiredness, and nausea. The most common serious side effects of HPV vaccination are dizziness and fainting. There is no evidence that HPV vaccines lead to infertility or autoimmune diseases, although these are common myths.
When the researchers looked at the data by state, they found that the number of parents citing safety concerns increased in 30 states and more than doubled in California, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Hawaii.
Why Wasnt The Hpv Vaccine Always Available For Boys
The HPV vaccine protects against 4 types of HPV. Two are linked to cancer: HPV 16 and 18, which together cause around 7 in 10 cervical cancer cases in the UK. The vaccine also protects against HPV 6 and 11, which cause most genital warts.
The vaccine has been available to girls in the UK since 2008. It was initially only recommended for girls as the strongest evidence of health benefits and cost effectiveness was for cervical cancer and genital warts.
Since the vaccine was introduced, were starting to see HPV infections in people who have been vaccinated falling. This suggests the vaccine is preventing HPV infection and, in the future, this should prevent cervical cancers.
But HPV is linked to cancers in men as well as women.
Men who have sex with women will get some protection from the current vaccination programme if their partner is vaccinated. The same cant be said for adult men who have sex with men .
In 2015, the JCVI, which advises UK health departments on vaccines, recommended extending vaccination to adult men who have sex with men. This group of men are at a higher risk of anal cancer. Up to the age of 45, these men can request HPV vaccination at sexual health clinics.
But up until today, the programme hadnt been recommended for boys, as the JCVI werent convinced it would be cost-effective.
Todays decision brings the UK in line with other countries including the US and Australia, which already offer the vaccination to boys.
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What Are The Risks And Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
In clinical trials and in real-world use, the HPV vaccine appears to be very safe. More than 40 million doses of the vaccine — mostly Gardasil, which was approved in 2006 — have been given in the U.S. Gardasil 9 was approved in 2014 and is now the only HPV vaccine available in the U.S.
From 2006 to 2014, there were about 25,000 reports to the government of HPV vaccine side effects. Over 90% of these were classified as nonserious. The most common side effects of the HPV vaccine are minor:
- About one in 10 people will have a mild fever after the injection.
- About one person in 30 will get itching at the injection site.
- About one in 60 people will experience a moderate fever.
These symptoms go away quickly without treatment. Other mild-to-moderate side effects resulting from the HPV vaccine include:
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome)
Government, academic, and other public health investigators could not identify the HPV vaccine as the cause of any severe adverse event. There were 117 deaths as of September 2015, none of which could be directly tied to the HPV vaccine. The conclusion of public health investigators was that the HPV vaccine was unlikely to be the cause of these events. Such events occur at a certain rate in any group of tens of millions of people. The vaccination before each adverse event seemed to be a simple coincidence.
National Cancer Institute: ”Human Papillomavirus Vaccines.”
Hpv Vaccination For Transgender People
Trans women are eligible in the same way as MSM if their risk of getting HPV is similar to the risk of MSM who are eligible for the HPV vaccine.
Trans men are eligible if they have sex with other men and are aged 45 or under.
If trans men have previously completed a course of HPV vaccination as part of the girls’ HPV vaccine programme, no further doses are needed.
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Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine In School
The HPV vaccine is offered free to girls and boys in schools.
It has been offered to girls since September 2008. It has been offered to both girls and boys since September 2019. This is because the evidence shows that the HPV vaccine helps protect both girls and boys from HPV-related conditions and cancers.
Hpv Vaccine Prevents Cervical Cancer
In reported that Swedish girls and women aged 10 to 30 years old, who had been vaccinated with Gardasil resulted in a big reduction in the risk of invasive cervical cancer in the population.
In the study cervical cancer was diagnosed in 538 women who had not received Gardasil vaccine and in only 19 women who had received the vaccine.
In Ireland, Gardasil 9 vaccine given through the school imminisation programme protects against 9 out of 10 cervical cancers.
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Synthesis Of The Results
In light of all the studies performed on this subject, there is a clear benefit for HPV vaccination for men, Yet, even with the introduction of a national vaccine program for HPV for women and girls in most developed countries, regarding the male vaccine program, few countries have established a national program. Still, a gender-neutral vaccine remains a controversial issue. If the only public health benefit considered is a reduction in female cancer, then all the mathematical models indicate that male vaccine effectiveness is low and adds only a small benefit to the disease reduction. It is considered that if the female mass is immunized, with time, the herd immunity could block some sexually transmitted diseases . Nevertheless, men also develop cancers due to HPV infection . In their study, Canfell et al demonstrated that if there is a high female vaccine program, the vaccination for HPV in men and boys is not cost effective . The only downfall of this case is for the MSM population, where there is basically no herd protection, therefore they remain vulnerable to HPV-associated diseases.
Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hpv
Females between 9 and 45 years of age can be vaccinated with Cervarix, Gardasil or Gardasil 9 to prevent cervical cancer and precancerous cervical changes. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 may also prevent vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers and their precancers, as well as anogenital warts.
Its important to know that HPV vaccines do not replace cervical cancer screening. Your doctor will still. HPV vaccines prevent infection from the most common types of HPV related to cancer, but not all.
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How Do We Know One Dose Is Enough
In 15 or so years since the HPV vaccine was first rolled out, researchers have tracked cervical cancer rates in millions of girls and women around the world.
But recent studies have presented compelling evidence that just one dose of the vaccine is sufficient.
The first hint came from a vaccine trial in Costa Rica. It was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three doses, but a group of women in the trial inadvertently received only one or two doses.
“This wasn’t intentional,” Professor Brotherton said.
“People got pregnant or something else happened, which meant they only got one dose.
“But they had just as good protection as if they got three doses. And this was totally unexpected.”
The vaccine in the Costa Rica study was bivalent. Would the same hold for a quadrivalent vaccine?
An answer would come from India, where a large trial into a three-dose schedule was stopped partway through. This meant many of the girls in the trial, aged between 10 and 18 years old, received just one dose.
“But what we saw coming out of that cohort study was that the quadrivalent vaccine did, again, show equivalent levels of protection in the girls that only got one dose as those who got two or three,” Professor Brotherton said.
While these and other studies, including data from Australia and the US, were intriguing, Professor Brotherton said the “pivotal study” was likely the randomised controlled trial that ran in Kenya.
Who Shouldnt Have The Hpv Vaccine
Most people will be able to have the HPV vaccine. You should not have the HPV vaccine if:
- you had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- you had a severe allergic reaction to any ingredient of the vaccine
- you are pregnant.
If you feel unwell or have a high temperature on the day you are having the HPV vaccine, you should have it on another day instead. This is to avoid confusing the illness with any side effects of the vaccine.
If you are unsure about whether you or a child should have the HPV vaccine, it is best to speak with the school nurse, or a nurse or doctor at your GP surgery.
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Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Me For Life
The vaccine appears to offer long-term protection from HPV. But, even women who have received the vaccine should see their gynecologist regularly for a Pap test to check for cervical cancer. The vaccine doesnât protect against all HPV types that can cause cervical cancer.
If you missed part of the HPV vaccine series, talk to your doctor about getting the missing dose.
How Effective Is The Hpv Vaccine
It is highly effective.
Almost all HPV infections that cause abnormal cells and cancer can be prevented by the HPV vaccine.
The HPV Vaccine targets the types of HPV responsible for around 90 percent of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, and 90 percent genital warts. Clinical trials show it is highly effective in preventing these types of HPV in young people who have not previously been exposed to them.
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How Is The Hpv Vaccine Made
The HPV vaccine is made using a protein that resides on the surface of the virus. The protein is grown in the lab in yeast cells. Once the protein is grown, it assembles itself to look like the HPV virus however, importantly, it does not contain HPV genetic material, so it cant reproduce itself or cause illness. The vaccine is composed of the surface protein from nine different types of HPV.
Reasons To Get Hpv Vaccine
All children ages 1112-years should get HPV vaccine to protect against cancers caused by HPV infections.
Almost every unvaccinated person who is sexually active will get HPV at some time in their life. About 13 million Americans, including teens, become infected with HPV each year. Most HPV infections will go away on their own. But infections that dont go away can cause certain types of cancer.
HPV can cause cancers of the:
- Penisexternal icon in men
- Anusexternal icon in both women and men
- Back of the throat , including the base of the tongue and tonsils, in both men and women
HPV infections, genital warts, and cervical precancers have dropped since the vaccine has been in use in the United States.
- Infections with HPV types that cause most HPV cancers and genital warts have dropped 88% among teen girls and 81% among young adult women.
- Among vaccinated women, the percentage of cervical precancers caused by the HPV types most often linked to cervical cancer have dropped by 40 percent.
HPV is estimated to cause nearly 36,000 cases of cancer in men and women every year in the United States. HPV vaccination can prevent 33,000 of these cancers by preventing the infections that cause them. Thats the same as the average attendance for a baseball game.
Most children only need two doses of HPV vaccine when vaccinated before age 15 years. You can take advantage of any visit to your childs doctor to get recommended vaccines for your child:
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When Should Vaccination Occur
Vaccination is most effective when given prior to HPV infection i.e. before becoming sexually active. For people who are already sexually active, the vaccine may still be of benefit. This is because there are many strains of HPV. The vaccine can still protect us against those strains that we haven’t yet been exposed to.
Who Is Eligible For The Free Hpv Vaccine
In Victoria, the HPV vaccine is available for free to all adolescents in year seven of secondaryschool under the National Immunisation Program. The two-dose course of the vaccineis given at school. It can also be given by a local doctor or at a council immunisation session. Contactyour state or territory health department for more information about HPV vaccination at your school.
People under 20 years of age who missed the vaccine at secondary school can access free catch-updoses at their local doctor or at a community immunisation session. From 15 years of age theGardasil®9 vaccine is given as a three-dose course.
- Find my local council
- Find my nearest immunisationprovider
People from 20 years of age are not eligible for free vaccination through the National Immunisation Program, so they will have to pay for thevaccine. The HPV vaccine is licensed for males aged 9 to 26 years and females aged 9 to 45 years.
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Should My Child Have The Hpv Vaccine
People think that the vaccine is not required because children are not sexually active, but there are very good reasons for the vaccine to be given at an early age.
All vaccines need to be given prior to exposure of the infection that you are trying to protect against.
The best immune response to a vaccine is before around the age of 12 years. This means that vaccines work best at an early age and will provide the most enduring protection.
The HPV vaccine has been tested in children down to 9 years of age. The clinical trials included girls and boys aged from 9 years of age, who were tested for their immune response to the vaccine and followed up for safety. The group who received the vaccine in early adolescence has now been followed as young adults, with no development of the HPV infections covered by the vaccine.
Males are now included in the HPV vaccination programmes because research shows that HPV infection is shared during sexual activity and males are at risk of HPV anal, penile and throat cancers. It is highly recommended that parents consider getting the HPV vaccination for their boys.
Where Can I Get More Information About Hpv Immunisation
Find out more about immunisation by speaking with your health professional. The best place to start iswith your GP. You can also ask your:
- maternal and child health nurse
- local community health centre
- local council immunisation service.
There is a lot of information online. When looking for immunisation information, stick to reliableinformation providers, such as:
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Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Receive The Hpv Vaccine
Certain people should not get the HPV vaccine or should wait before getting it:
- Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose of the HPV vaccine
- Anyone who has had a previous life-threatening allergic reaction to an ingredient in the HPV vaccine
- Pregnant women
- Anyone with a moderate or severe illness people who feel mildly ill may still receive the HPV vaccine.
Mechanism Of Cervical Cancer
Normal cervical cells => The body is exposed to high-risk HPV and the immune system cannot fully eliminate viruses within 2 years, inducing pre-cancer changes. Pre-cancerous cervical cells can turn to be cervical cancer in the next 10 years => Pre-cancerous stage => Cancer of Cervix
Besides cervical cancer, some cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus and oropharynx are also caused by certain strains of HPV. However, molecular mechanism of developing cancers after being exposed to HPV widely varies among individual patients, depending on their immune systems. For instance, immunocomprimised patients with HIV infection or SLE are more susceptible to develop cancerous stage quicker than 10 years.
As a normal mechanism of the body after being infected with HPV, an immune system can usually get rid of viruses . While most HPV infections are characterized by spontaneous viral clearance, some HPV strains are highly persistent. The median time to clearance of high-risk HPV infection in most cases with proper immune function is approximately 8 months. 70% of viruses can be eliminated from the body within a year. Nonetheless, clearance requires an effective cell-mediated immune response. In case that high-risk HPV group has been persistently detected longer than 2 years, the risk of further developing to cervical cancer drastically increases 200-400 times while detection of other strains in high-risk HPV group increases the chance of cervical cancer 30-40 times.
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