What Types Of Hpv Vaccines Are There
Three HPV vaccines9-valent HPV vaccine , quadrivalent HPV vaccine , and bivalent HPV vaccine have been licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . All three HPV vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18 that cause most HPV cancers.
Since late 2016, only Gardasil-9 is distributed in the United States. This vaccine protects against nine HPV types .
Hpv Vaccine: What Age Is Too Late
All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is mosteffective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Its likely youve heard about the HPV vaccine. This vaccine can protect your child against the human papillomavirus . This virus causes several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers.
The HPV vaccine is recommended for pre-teens. But why? And does it work for older teens and adults? When it comes to the HPV vaccine, how late is too late?
There are a lot of questions surrounding the HPV vaccine. We spoke with Lois Ramondetta, M.D., professor of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine. Heres what she told us about the age range for the HPV vaccine.
Males and females ages 9 to 45 can get the vaccine
The CDC recommends all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine between the ages of 11 and 12, the age for optimal protection. They should get two shots, six to 12 months apart.
Vaccines given to 14 or 15 year olds are late and less effective, Ramondetta says.
In fact, patients 15 and older should receive three shots over the course of six months to receive the same benefit.
The bottom line: All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is most effective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages 2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Lois Ramondetta, M.D.
When To Get Vaccinated: Hpv Vaccine Schedule
- Before age 15, you need two doses
- After age 15, you need three doses
- Optimal age for vaccination is 11-12
- You can still benefit from vaccination up to age 26
- The FDA has approved the vaccine for adults up to age 45
The younger, the better. There are a few reasons for this.
You want to vaccinate prior to close contact, so it is approved as early as 9, Modesitt explains. Like any vaccine, the HPV vaccine needs time to take effect before it can adequately protect against infection.
But also, as Payne points out, the immune response is so much better in younger people. Early vaccination packs an extra-protective punch. Plus, kids who start the vaccine series before age 15 only need two doses of vaccine, whereas those who start the series later need three doses.
Educate & advocate. Paynes heard from a number of parents who only realized when they got home from the 11-year-old check-up that the providers only ordered Tdap and meningitis vaccines, didnt even mention HPV, and the families had to make return visits specifically to complete the recommended vaccines. Make sure your childs pediatrician gives all three vaccines.
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Hpv Is Common In Boys
There are about 14 million new cases of HPV every year, and many of those are in boys. HPV is very common, and it can be spread through oral, vaginal, and anal sex, even when someone doesnt have any symptoms. While HPV itself doesnt immediately cause cancer, it can cause changes in the bodys cells that can lead to cancer, according to the CDC. But what makes HPV-related cancers so different from others is that it can be prevented with a vaccine.
Men Get Cancers Caused By Hpv In Large Numbers Too
From 2013 to 2017, there were approximately 25,000 cases of HPV-associated cancers in women and 19,000 in men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than four out of every ten cases of cancer caused by HPV are in men.
HPV should be of concern to all since men and women are affected virtually the same by this virus, says Abraham Aragones, an MSK physician who also studies public health.
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Hpv Vaccine Side Effects
HPV vaccines can cause pain, swelling, and redness where the shot was given, as well as headaches, tiredness, and nausea. The most common serious side effects of HPV vaccination are dizziness and fainting. There is no evidence that HPV vaccines lead to infertility or autoimmune diseases, although these are common myths.
When the researchers looked at the data by state, they found that the number of parents citing safety concerns increased in 30 states and more than doubled in California, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Hawaii.
Fewer Health Issues After Vaccination
To look at trends in health issues reported after HPV vaccination, the researchers turned to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System , a website operated by CDC and FDA. Patients, caregivers, health care professionals, and vaccine manufacturers can use VAERS to voluntarily report any health problems that occur after vaccination.
From 2015 to 2018, reports of health issues following HPV vaccination went down overall.
Reports of serious health issues after HPV vaccination were consistently rarearound 1.8 per 100,000 HPV vaccine doses, or 0.0018%. A total of 758 serious health problems that arose after HPV vaccination were reported in VAERS during that time. Meanwhile, the rate of nonserious health issues following HPV vaccination reported in VAERS dropped from 43 to 28 per 100,000 vaccine doses.
Just because a health problem is reported in VAERS doesnt mean the vaccine caused it, Dr. Sonawane cautioned. Some health reports were hearsay and lacked sufficient information to be verified, she added.
We have to be cautious about interpreting VAERS data and not make any causeeffect associations, she said. According to CDC and FDA, VAERS data can only be used to find unusual patterns that should be evaluated in additional studies.
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Why Is The Hpv Vaccine Recommended
HPV can cause some types of cancer and genital warts. The vaccine is an important way to prevent infection and the spread of HPV. It works best when given before someone might be exposed to the virus.
The HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against all types of HPV. So people who are sexually active should always use condoms. Girls and women should see their gynecologist regularly and get pap smears as recommended .
Teens or young adults who didn’t start or complete the series of shots can get it up to age 45.
Why Boys Are Not Getting Hpv Vaccine And How To Fix This
A noticeable gender gap exists between boys and girls when it comes to vaccination rates for human papillomavirus . Heres why healthcare providers need to up their game when it comes to HPV vaccine for boys.
Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States.1 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 4 persons in the United States is currently infected with the virus, which is about 79 million people. Approximately 14 million individuals, including teenagers, are infected every year. Another shocking statistic is that almost every person who is sexually active will get HPV at some point in their lives if they dont receive the vaccine,1 and although 9 of 10 infections resolve on their own within 2 years and cause no symptoms or health problems, 1 in 10 infections persists and can progress to cancer.2
Vaccination rates and the gender gap
According to the CDC, most parents are choosing to get the HPV vaccine for their children, which is good news. In 2017, nearly half of adolescents were up-to-date on the HPV vaccine, and approximately two-thirds of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years received the first dose to start the series.5 On average, the percentage of adolescents who started the vaccine series increased by 5 percentage points each year over the past 5 years .
Boys and girls should be equally informed
Barriers to access
Strategies to Improve uptake of HPV vaccine
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Who Can Have The Hpv Vaccine Through The Nhs Vaccination Programme
The 1st dose of the HPV vaccine is routinely offered to girls and boys aged 12 and 13 in school Year 8. The 2nd dose is offered 6 to 24 months after the 1st dose.
If you miss either of your HPV vaccine doses, speak to your school immunisation team or GP surgery and make an appointment to have the missed dose as soon as possible.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be fully protected.
If youre eligible and miss the HPV vaccine offered in Year 8 at school, its available for free on the NHS up until your 25th birthday for:
- girls born after 1 September 1991
- boys born after 1 September 2006
Is This Vaccination Safe
Vaccines have to be rigorously tested before they can be widely distributed. The HPV vaccines were tested on thousands of people and shown to be safe before they were released to the public. These vaccines have been used for years now, and experts say the chance of them causing a serious reaction is very slim. The HPV vaccine does not contain mercury or the preservative thimerosal.
If I get the HPV vaccine, is there a chance I could get HPV from the vaccine?
The part of the HPV virus used in both vaccines is inactivated , so it can’t cause actual HPV infection.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will also need 2 doses of the vaccine given 6 months apart.
MSM who are HIV positive or have a weakened immune system need to have 3 doses of the HPV vaccine.
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all vaccine doses to be properly protected.
How Do You Catch Hpv
HPV is transmitted from one person to another by genital contact. Although this most often occurs during sexual intercourse, it can also occur during oral or anal sex or through genital-to-genital contact in the absence of sexual intercourse.
HPV infections are unique. First, most people never know they were infected. Unlike a cold in which symptoms develop a few days after exposure to the virus, HPV infections are typically not symptomatic. Second, HPV infections can last for long periods of time. The average length of infection is about eight months however, for about 1 of every 10 women, the infection lasts longer than two years. It is in this group of women that there is an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer often doesnt occur until 20 years after the initial infection.
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Can’t I Avoid Cervical Cancer By Simply Getting Routine Pap Testing
No. At one time cervical cancer was the most common cause of cancer in the United States. One test changed that: the Papanicolaou test. The Pap test is performed by scraping cells from the opening of the cervix and examining them under the microscope to see whether they have begun to show changes consistent with the early development of cancer . Typically, the length of time from infection with HPV to development of cervical cancer is about 15-20 years. For this reason, although most HPV infections occur in teenagers and young adults, cervical cancer is more common in women in their 40s and 50s.
The Pap test is one of the most effective cancer screening tests available and has dramatically reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in the United States. But the test isn’t perfect and not all women get tested as often as they should.
On the flip side, even if you have been vaccinated against HPV, you are still recommended to get the Pap test.
Who Should Get The Hpv Vaccine
All people ages 9 to 45 can get the HPV vaccine to protect against genital warts and/or different types of HPV that can cause cancer. Its recommended that children get the vaccine at age 11 or 12, so theyre fully protected years before they become sexually active.
But regardless of your age, talk with your nurse or doctor to find out if the HPV vaccine could benefit you.
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Does The Vaccine Have Side Effects Is It Safe
The HPV vaccine is safe. The most common side effects from HPV vaccination are mild and might include: fever, headache, and pain and redness in the arm where the shot was given.
Sometimes children and teens faint after getting a shot, including the HPV vaccine. Sitting or lying down when getting a shot, and staying in that position for about 15 minutes afterwards, can help prevent fainting.
Children and teens with an allergy to yeast or with an allergy to any other component of the vaccine that causes anaphylaxis should not receive the HPV vaccine.
Can I Get The Hpv Vaccine
In the United States, the HPV vaccination recommendation is for:
- All preteens at age 11 or 12 years
- Everyone through age 26 years, if not vaccinated already.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years. However, some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after speaking with their healthcare provider about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination.
HPV vaccination for ages 27 through 45 provides less benefit. Most sexually active adults have already been exposed to HPV, although vaccination does not target all HPV types.
At any age, having a new sex partner is a risk factor for getting a new HPV infection. People who are already in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship are not likely to get a new HPV infection.
Learn more about who should get an HPV vaccine.
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Vaccines To Prevent Hpv
There are currently 3 vaccines used to prevent the spread of HPV, according to vaccines.gov. All 3 vaccines are approved by the FDA to prevent HPV infections:
- Gardasil is an HPV vaccine for males and females.
- Gardasil 9 is an HPV vaccine for males and females.
- Cervarix is an HPV vaccine for females only.
All 3 vaccines prevent infection from the most common types of HPV: types 16 and 18. Gardasil also protects against HPV types 6 and 11. Gardasil 9 guards you from infection against an additional 5 HPV types: 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
Know these vaccines dont provide protection from other sexually transmitted infections. Also, they dont protect you from all HPV types. They do protect you from those types most likely to cause cancer.
The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that boys and girls ages 11-12 receive HPV vaccines as part of their vaccination schedule.
The Vaccines Have Been Tested In Thousands Of People And Have Continued To Be Closely Monitored Since Fda Approval
Some parents worry about vaccines safety, frightened by misinformation circulating on the internet. Cancer experts point out that HPV vaccines have been tested in thousands of people, and are closely monitored.
For example, 29 million doses of the current Gardasil vaccine were given from December 2014 through December 2017, according to the CDC. In that period, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, which tracks vaccine safety, received 7,244 reports of adverse events following Gardasil 9 vaccination amounting to .0002 percent of the doses given. Overall, 97 percent of those effects were non-serious reports 3 percent were classified as serious. Mild side effects are common and include pain where the shot was given, nausea, headache and fever. Some people experience fainting. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System points out that not all these reports mean that a vaccine caused the effect only that the adverse effect happened after the vaccination.
Cervical cancer, however, accounts for 12,000 new diagnoses per year and 4,000 deaths.
The National Cancer Institute offers this helpful information about HPV.
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Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
HPV vaccination is recommended at ages 1112 years. HPV vaccines can be given starting at age 9 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination, so they are protected from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.
- Teens and young adults through age 26 years who didnt start or finish the HPV vaccine series also need HPV vaccination.
CDC recommends that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine 6 to 12 months apart.
- The first dose is routinely recommended at ages 1112 years old. The vaccination can be started at age 9 years.
- Only two doses are needed if the first dose was given before 15th birthday.
Teens and young adults who start the series later, at ages 15 through 26 years, need three doses of HPV vaccine.
- Children aged 9 through 14 years who have received two doses of HPV vaccine less than 5 months apart will need a third dose.
- Three doses are also recommended for people aged 9 through 26 years who have weakened immune systems.
Vaccination is not recommended for everyone older than age 26 years.
- Some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination for them.
- HPV vaccination in this age range provides less benefit, because more people in this age range have already been exposed to HPV.