How Can I Lower My Chance Of Getting Hpv
There are two steps you can take to lower your chances of getting HPV and diseases from HPV:
- Get vaccinated. The HPV vaccine is safe and effective. It can protect men against warts and certain cancers caused by HPV. Ideally, you should get vaccinated before ever having sex.
- Use condomsthe right way every time you have sex. This can lower your chances of getting all STIs, including HPV. However, HPV can infect areas the condom does not cover. So, condoms may not offer full protection against getting HPV.
Safety And Adverse Events
Common and local adverse events
Based on pre-licensure clinical trials, involving more than 15,000 subjects given HPV4 vaccine and 12,000 given HPV2 vaccine, the most common adverse events in persons receiving HPV vaccines were: injection site pain , swelling or redness . These adverse events were observed significantly more often following HPV vaccine than following active vaccine or placebo controls. In over 94% of subjects who received HPV vaccine, the reactions were mild to moderate in intensity, resolved over a few days, and did not prevent completion of the immunization schedule. Systemic adverse events, such as fatigue, myalgia, headache, fever, and nausea, generally occurred with comparable frequency in vaccine and control groups. The safety profile of HPV9 vaccine is comparable to HPV4 vaccine, although mild to moderate intensity injection site reactions are more common following receipt of HPV9 vaccine.
Since vaccine licensure, hundreds of millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been distributed worldwide. Data from post-licensure safety surveillance reporting systems have consistently mirrored the pre-licensure data with the most frequently reported adverse events following immunization being vaccination site reactions and muscle pain.
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Other reported adverse events and conditions
Guidance on Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
Contraindications and precautions
How Long Has Hpv Immunisation Been Available In New Zealand
The HPV Immunisation Programme started in New Zealand in September 2008, for girls and young women up to their 20th birthday. Over 200,000 girls and young women have been fully immunised against HPV in New Zealand.
HPV vaccines were first approved by the United States FDA in 2006. Over 165 million doses have been distributed worldwide since then.
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Hpv Is Common In Boys
There are about 14 million new cases of HPV every year, and many of those are in boys. HPV is very common, and it can be spread through oral, vaginal, and anal sex, even when someone doesnt have any symptoms. While HPV itself doesnt immediately cause cancer, it can cause changes in the bodys cells that can lead to cancer, according to the CDC. But what makes HPV-related cancers so different from others is that it can be prevented with a vaccine.
Can I Have The Vaccine When Pregnant
If you know that you are pregnant then delay starting getting the vaccine until after pregnancy.
If you have already had one or two doses, and then discover that you are pregnant, then wait until after pregnancy until receiving the subsequent dose/s.
If you had your vaccination and didn’t realise that you were pregnant at the time, don’t worry, the vaccine is safe. In the clinical trials, there were many pregnancies that occurred in the trial participants and there were no adverse effects to fertility, pregnancy, or baby.
Women may safely breastfeed if they receive the vaccine during that period.
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The Hse School Vaccination Programme
The HPV vaccine, along with MenACWY and Tdap, is given to first year students in secondary school by our school vaccination teams.
It is hoped that the second level school programme will commence from the 27th September 2021.
The HSE school vaccination programme may need to take place in a different venue from the school premises or may still be delayed because of COVID-19. The HSE will try to keep these changes to a minimum.
The HSE school vaccination programme may need to be done in a different venue or may be delayed because of COVID-19.
There is no requirement to restart the HPV vaccine schedule if the schedule is interrupted because of COVID-19. The National Immunisation Advisory Committee advice from the Immunisation Guidelines for Ireland says:
If an immunisation course is interrupted, it should be resumed as soon as possible. It is not necessary to repeat the course, regardless of the time interval from the previous incomplete course*. The course should be completed with the same brand of vaccine if possible.
* except cholera vaccine
What Are The Benefits Of The Hpv Vaccines
In women who have never been infected with HPV, the vaccines prevent almost 100% of cases of cervical cancer caused by the HPV types covered by the vaccines.
The HPV9 vaccine also prevents about:
- 78% of cases of anal cancers in men caused by the two main types of HPV
- 90% to 100% of cases of genital warts in men and women caused by 2 other types of HPV
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Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hpv
Females between 9 and 45 years of age can be vaccinated with Cervarix, Gardasil or Gardasil 9 to prevent cervical cancer and precancerous cervical changes. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 may also prevent vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers and their precancers, as well as anogenital warts.
Its important to know that HPV vaccines do not replace cervical cancer screening. Your doctor will still. HPV vaccines prevent infection from the most common types of HPV related to cancer, but not all.
Men Who Have Sex With Men
It has been argued that it is not cost-effective to vaccinate all boys and that we should just vaccinate men who have sex with men. Superficially this may seem like a suitable solution, but the practicalities of vaccinating men who have sex with men are complicated.
The vaccine offers most protection if it is given to the person before they have any sexual contact , that is why 12 to 13-year-old girls are vaccinated. It is totally inappropriate to ask 12 to 13-year-old boys if they are likely to have sex with another male when they are older, and if so, would they like an HPV jab?
The other solution is to vaccinate men who have sex with men at a sexual health clinic, but this would in all likelihood be too late, as they will have probably already caught HPV at this stage. This is why all adolescents, both boys and girls should be offered the vaccine as they are in other parts of the world. We can, and should be protecting our adolescents in the UK in the same way.
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Men Get Cancers Caused By Hpv In Large Numbers Too
From 2013 to 2017, there were approximately 25,000 cases of HPV-associated cancers in women and 19,000 in men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than four out of every ten cases of cancer caused by HPV are in men.
HPV should be of concern to all since men and women are affected virtually the same by this virus, says Abraham Aragones, an MSK physician who also studies public health.
Fifty Years In The Making
Researchers had long known that cervical cancer behaves like a venereal disease, transmitted through sexual contact. It is rare in virgins and most common among women with early sexual experience and multiple partners.
An infectious cause was suspected but difficult to prove. In 1968 on Page 1 of The Times, I reported a link between cervical cancer and a sexually transmitted virus called Type 2 herpes. It turned out to be a red herring. Finally, in the 1980s, the human papillomavirus was correctly identified as the cause of cervical cancer, which led to the development and marketing of a highly effective vaccine in 2006.
Now, if not for the slow adoption of the HPV vaccine by the parents of adolescents, we would likely be well on our way to eliminating nearly all cases of cervical cancer and the five other HPV-caused cancers, 45,000 cases of which are diagnosed annually in the United States, Dr. Abraham Aragones, a public health researcher at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center told me.
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Pregnancy And Hpv Immunisation
Immunisation against HPV is not recommended for women who are pregnant. If you become pregnant afterstarting the HPV vaccination course, you should not receive any further doses of the vaccine whilepregnant. You can complete the course of vaccination after the birth of your baby. The HPV vaccine canbe given to women who are breastfeeding.
What Are The Side Effects Of The Hpv Vaccine
Side effects that people get from the HPV vaccine usually are minor. They may include swelling or pain at the injection site, or feeling faint after getting the vaccine. As with other vaccines, there is a rare chance of an allergic reaction.
A few people have reported health problems after getting the shot. The FDA is monitoring the vaccine closely to make sure these are not caused by the vaccine itself.
Most people have no trouble with the vaccine. You can make fainting less likely by sitting down for 15 minutes after each shot.
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The Vaccines Have Been Tested In Thousands Of People And Have Continued To Be Closely Monitored Since Fda Approval
Some parents worry about vaccines safety, frightened by misinformation circulating on the internet. Cancer experts point out that HPV vaccines have been tested in thousands of people, and are closely monitored.
For example, 29 million doses of the current Gardasil vaccine were given from December 2014 through December 2017, according to the CDC. In that period, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, which tracks vaccine safety, received 7,244 reports of adverse events following Gardasil 9 vaccination amounting to .0002 percent of the doses given. Overall, 97 percent of those effects were non-serious reports 3 percent were classified as serious. Mild side effects are common and include pain where the shot was given, nausea, headache and fever. Some people experience fainting. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System points out that not all these reports mean that a vaccine caused the effect only that the adverse effect happened after the vaccination.
Cervical cancer, however, accounts for 12,000 new diagnoses per year and 4,000 deaths.
The National Cancer Institute offers this helpful information about HPV.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
But if you get your 1st vaccine dose at the age of 15 or over, you’ll need to have 3 injections.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will need 3 doses of the vaccine .
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all 3 vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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What Are The Side Effects
Many people have no side effects from the vaccines. For those that do, common side effects may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle or joint ache may also occur. As with other vaccines, fainting has occurred following HPV vaccination. Fainting can occur with any medical procedure – not just the HPV vaccine and people recover quickly.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is a very rare possibility, between one in 100,000 and one in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
How Do Men Get Hpv
You can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus, but it is most commonly spread during anal or vaginal sex. It also spreads through close skin-to-skin touching during sex. HPV can spread even when a person with the infection has no signs or symptoms.
If you are sexually active, you can get HPV even if you have sex with only one person. Symptoms can appear years after you have sex with someone who has the infection. This makes it hard to know when you first got it.
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A Highly Effective Vaccine
Until recently, the vaccines ability to prevent cancer was presumed but not proved. Cervical cancer risk rises with age, most often occurring in midlife or later, so it can take many years to confirm the vaccines ability to protect against cancer.
Now a new study in Britain of an early version of the vaccine found that within 13 years of vaccine administration, there were 87 percent fewer cases of cervical cancer among young women immunized between ages 12 and 13, compared to unvaccinated women. Significantly lower cancer rates were also found among women immunized between ages 14 and 16 and between 16 and 18, although the greatest benefit occurred among those vaccinated at the youngest ages, before most girls were likely exposed to the virus through sexual contact.
The British study involved a vaccine called Cervarix, that protects against two variants of the virus. The current American version of the HPV vaccine, called Gardasil-9, is even more effective: It protects against nine variants of the virus and is expected to prevent more than 90 percent of HPV-related cancers, Dr. Aragones said. A recent analysis in JAMA Pediatrics found a similar decrease in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in young women since the vaccine was introduced.
Should Males Get The Hpv Vaccine
HPV is the ‘common cold’ of being sexually active. This means that the virus doesn’t care who we are or who we choose to have sex with. Most of us will be sharing HPV with our fellow human beings.
Males carry an equal risk of acquiring HPV.
Males are at risk of HPV anal, penile and throat cancers. The HPV vaccine can offer much needed protection against these strains of HPV.
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False Claims About The Hpv Vaccine
We are aware of stories on social media claiming that the HPV vaccine causes an increase in cases of:
- postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome an increase in heart rate that can make you feel faint and dizzy
- complex regional pain syndrome a form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg
The European Medicines Agency researched these claims in 2015. They found no evidence that the HPV vaccine leads to an increase in these conditions.
Read the EMA’s report on the HPV vaccine and read about research from other countries here.
When Should You Be Vaccinated
The vaccines are given 2 or 3 times over a 6- to 12-month period. The timing of doses is important to make sure the vaccines are as effective as possible. If all doses of the vaccine are not given, or they are not given at the right time, you may not get the full benefit of the vaccine.
The vaccines are most effective if theyre given before a person becomes sexually active because their risk of infection will be lower. The vaccines are also more effective in young teens when the immune system is most responsive to the vaccine.
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Early Hpv Vaccination Is Key For Prevention
Some wonder why the HPV vaccine should be recommended so early when many boys may not even be considering having sex yet. But studies show us that boys are more likely to have more oral sex partners and have earlier oral and vaginal sex than girls. Since HPV can be contracted at any age, and it typically has no symptoms until its led to cancer, getting the vaccine prior to any sexual contact is vital.
The HPV vaccine is available for boys and men in the United States, Canada, Austria, and Australia. Other countries have avoided it, saying that it is not cost-effective to vaccinate boys. However, there is a cost burden of treating HPV-related cancers in men. We also lack an effective screening test for HPV-related throat cancer at present, so many argue that we should provide the vaccine to men to protect them. A high rate of HPV vaccination in girls does protect boys via “herd immunity,” but this is not 100%. Many experts feel that the increasing prevalence of HPV-related cancers in men warrants vaccination of all children.
Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect Me For Life
The vaccine appears to offer long-term protection from HPV. But, even women who have received the vaccine should see their gynecologist regularly for a Pap test to check for cervical cancer. The vaccine doesnât protect against all HPV types that can cause cervical cancer.
If you missed part of the HPV vaccine series, talk to your doctor about getting the missing dose.
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